Pineapple Farming Project Report Analysis:
The following content is all about Pineapple Farming Project Report.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – INTRODUCTION
Pineapple is a tropical plant with great economic significance. This plant is native to South American region, especially the area between Brazil and Paraguay. The first commercial cultivation of pineapple was successfully done in Hawaii in the 19th century. During the initial years importing pineapple was expensive and the cost of growing pineapples was also very high, therefore it was considered as a symbol of wealth and was used as display material at dinner parties. This fruit is favoured next to mango for its pleasant flavour and taste. The commercial cultivation in India started four decades ago and most of the regions in India are suitable for pineapple cultivation. Though India is the fifth largest producer of the fruit it has no much importance in the country. The other leading producers of the fruit are Thailand, Philippines, Brazil, China, Nigeria, Mexico, Indonesia, Colombia and the USA. This pineapple project report presents the farming details about the fruit, its cost of production and the return on investment. You can find all the economics of pineapple farming at the bottom of this content.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – FRUIT AND ITS PROPERTIES
The pineapple is a combination of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fat, fibre, vitamins, electrolytes, minerals and Phyto-nutrients.
The vitamins present in the pineapple are: folates, niacin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamin, Vitamin A, C, E and K.
The electrolytes in the fruit are sodium and potassium.
The minerals present in the fruit are calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium and zinc.
The Phyto-nutrients in the fruit are beta-carotene and beta crypto-xanthin.
The potential benefits of the fruit are:
- The consumption of pineapple is beneficial for treating inflammation in joints.
- It helps boost the immunity due to the presence of ascorbic acid.
- The presence of vitamin C helps faster healing of wounds.
- The carotene, bromelain and other anti-oxidants help prevent cancer.
- Regular consumption of pineapples helps in digestion and relieves constipation.
- Helps in the treatment of cough and cold.
- The mineral composition of pineapple helps in improving the bone health.
- It relieves uncomfort due to asthma.
- Fibre in pineapple is good for diabetic patients.
- Sometimes this fruit is beneficial in increasing fertility in women.
- The vitamins help in the skin care improvement
- The fruit is good for oral and visual health due to the presence of citric agent.
- Potassium present in the fruit is good for heart health and reduces blood pressure.
- Minerals also help in proper blood circulation.
- Bromelain is considered to reduce clotting of blood and drive away kidney stones.
There could be some side effects of the fruit mainly because of the vitamin C and the bromelain content in it. Raw pineapples are very unpleasant for consumption and could lead to;
- Mouth and cheek swelling.
- Skin rashes.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PLANT CHARACTERISTICS
The pineapple plant is an herb and is considered to have short life span. It is a monocot and perennial plant of height about 0.8 to 1.5 m and a spread of 1 to 1.5 m. The leaves of the plant form a rosette shape and are waxy in nature. The leaves are usually long, sword like with sharp spines along the leaf margins. The colour of the leaves is green, red, yellow or ivory in the middle.
The roots of the pineapple plant are shallow. The initial root disappears after producing adventitious roots.
The stem of the plant grows from the shoots and curves at the base. The stem on the crown of the fruit are straight. The average length of the stems is 20 to 23 cm. The stems are 2 to 3.5 cm in diameter near the base and broaden to 5.5 or 6.5 cm near the apex. The vegetative part of the plant grows from these stems near to the base. Every variety of pineapple has pollen and ovules but only cross-pollination can set a functional seed. Within 10 to 20 days, 5 or 10 flowers open up at the base.
The fruit of the pineapple tree is formed by the fusion of individual parthenocarpic fruitlets and hence it is termed as a compound fruit. The fruit is fleshy, juicy and yellow in colour. The stalk of the fruit develops along with the fruit and finally forms the crown.
The inflorescence contains 100 to 200 bluish flowers which develop into a fruit.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – CULTIVARS OF PINEAPPLE
The pineapples are divided into three major categories such as the Cayenne, the Queen and the Spanish.
- Smooth cayenne.
- Giant kew.
- Ripley queen.
- James queen.
- Mac gregor.
- Common rough.
- Comte de paris.
- Red Spanish.
- Singapore Spanish.
- Espanola roja.
- Pina de Cumana.
- Selengor green.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – CULTIVATION DETAILS
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – SOIL AND CLIMATE
The soil for pineapple farming should be well drained and slightly acidic in nature with pH levels around 4.5 to 6. The soil has to be light and can be sandy, alluvial or lateritic but not heavy clayey soil. Pineapple farming needs heavy rainfall conditions of about 1500 mm annually. The fruit is suitable for cultivation either near the seacoast or inland areas, but the minimum temperature ranges should be in between 15.5 to 32˚C. The plants can survive at an altitude of 1525 m above sea level. Very low temperatures, shady areas and too much sunlight can be harmful to the plants. The plants flower from February till April and bears fruits from July till September. Estimating this flowering season the plants are planted 12 to 15 months before the flowering time.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PROPAGATION METHODS
The propagation in pineapples can happen by planting crowns, slips or suckers. Sometimes seeds and tissue culture are also used for propagation. Suckers from the ratoon crops used for propagation can produce fruits in 12 to 14 months. The planting material plays an important role in the performance of the plants. The planting material should be uniform in size to produce uniform crops. Generally suckers from the ground or slips from the crown of the fruit are used for propagation during commercial cultivation. The sucker or slip used for propagation should have 350 to 450 g of weight and it is ideal to secure more number of plantlets from a single mother plant. The ‘Kew’ variety of pineapples can grow from their leaf cuttings. The dried leaflet from the base of the sucker is removed and trimmed. The slips are packed in a container layer by layer such that the leaflets are pointing outside. A solution, 5 ml 0.1% of diazinon in 4.5 l of water is prepared and the container with slips is filled with it such that the pests on the slips are killed. The suckers are removed using gloves and are planted in an upright position under the shade.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – LAND PREPARATION AND PLANTING
The land is prepared by ploughing and digging it thoroughly and levelling it. Trenches are created for the farming of pineapple. The width of the trench is about 90 cm and the depth is 15 to 30 cm depending on the soil type and texture. The plant to plant spacing is 30 cm and the row spacing is 60 cm. The planting material that has been secured is first treated by drying it under the sun for 3 or 4 days. 5 to 6 months old suckers bear flowers in 12 months time, but crowns bear flowers in 19 to 20 months after planting. Commercial cultivation uses suckers because crowns take longer time to grow. The bud from the suckers should not be buried into the ground while planting. Normal planting density of pineapple crops is 43,500 plants per hectare. The planting of crops is generally done during the rainy season. There are 4 types of planting methods depending on the topography of the land; they are flat bed planting, furrow planting, contour planting and trench planting.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – MANURE AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION
The soil nutrition content can be tested by the soil analysis and leaf analysis of the previous crop such that the next crop can be provided with sufficient nutrients. The pineapple plant needs high nitrogen and potassium content. Proper application and time of fertilization has great impact on the crop growth. Nitrogen is supplied to the plants in 6 split doses; one dose is applied two months after planting the crops and last dose till the 12th month of the crop season. Potash is supplied in two doses. The phosphorus and potassium are applied 6 months after planting. Light irrigation has to be given after fertilizing the plants. During the land preparation 600 kg of nitrogen, 400 kg of potassium and 150 kg of phosphorous per hectare of land is applied. There could be a possible need for 20 g of nitrogen to the plants just before the flower induction.
Organic manure form the pen is considered to be a rich source of nutrients and can be used for pineapple farms. The organic manure has to be composted properly before application to the land. The organic composted manure is applied into the pits at the time of planting and then mulching is done.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – IRRIGATION NEEDS
High rain fed area is best suitable for pineapple cultivation. Extra irrigation can help produce large fruit size and also can help farming in non-rain fed areas. Hot weather conditions are beneficial, but sufficient irrigation can assist in good crop production. The interval between irrigation cycles should be 20 to 25 days. The per day water requirement for pineapple crop is 1.3 to 5mm per day.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – INTERCULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Good intercultural operations improve the quality of the yield and also sometimes earn extra income to the cultivators.
- Earthing up is a technique to provide plants with good support with the soil by pushing it from the ridges to the trench. With pineapple plants there is a risk of lodging due to shallow root system. This lodging may destroy or cause uneven development of the fruit. So, earthing up prevents the crop from lodging.
- In pineapple cultivated farms, the two most common types of weeds are nut grass and hariyali. Hand weeding was once upon a time used to remove the weeds, but it is a laborious task. So, chemical weedicide application as a pre-emergence spray is recommended to the cultivators. 0.6 kg Diuron and 0.8 kg bromacil are used as first application and are repeated after 5 months with half the concentration.
- Mulching is done on soil beds to conserve the moisture level and also to help control weeds. Covering the soil with polyethylene film is an easy way of mulching. Alternatively spreading leaves and straw over the soil beds around the pineapple plantations is an organic way of mulching.
- As the plant starts flowering, there is a growth of suckers and slips on the plant. Most of them are removed and only a few are retained for propagation purpose. The presence of more slips and suckers delays the fruit production and maturity. It is also believed that suckers increase the weight of the fruit, so some farmers delay removal of suckers.
- Proper fertilizers and earthing up can give good yield for ratoon crops as well. In India, once a pineapple crop is planted it produces 3 yields in the form of ratoon crops. So, care and protection should be continued after the first main crop production.
- Application of growth regulators induces flowering in the plants. Compounds such as Planofix and celemone @ 10-20 ppm are used as growth regulators for pineapple farming.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL
Like every other plant the pineapple plant is also infected with diseases and the most common ones are:
- Wilt: destroying the diseased parts by burning them is a better solution for wilt disease.
- Root rot: long period of soil moisture should be avoided to control the disease
- Phytophthora heart rots: spraying Bordeaux mixture or 2 g or copper oxychloride per liter of water can control the disease.
- Fruitlet ore rot: miticide should be used during rotation of crops. Care should be taken that the fruits do not come in contact with the soil and also the people handling the fruits must wash their hands during the post harvest management so as not to transfer any germ to the fruit.
The most common pests that infest the plants are:
- Mealybug: spraying 60% of 0.2% Basudin EC is diluted in 4.5 l of water can be a probable solution of the bugs.
- Nematodes: treating the planting material by dipping it in oxamyl, a nematicide can help overcome the situation.
- Butterfly larvae: Sevin is applied to the plants before flowering and also at regular intervals to control the
- Rodents: klerat, rodenticide bait used to control the rodents. Traps can also be incorporated to arrest the movement of rodents.
- Birds: using scarecrows and noise simulations and drive the birds away or bird netting over the fruits can minimize the loss of fruits due to birds.
The pineapple plants are also prone to various abnormalities they are,
Multiple crowns: Some extreme cases of pineapples bear 25 crowns due to which the top part of the fruit becomes broad and flat. This impacts the fruit by making it taste insipid and corcky.
Crown and fruit fasciation: This makes the fruit unsuitable for consumption. Too much of vegetative growth results in fasciation. The fruit gets twisted and develop innumerable crowns
Collar of slips: Too many slips growing in the stem area cause this condition in pineapple plants. Too much rain and favourable conditions help such growth.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – HARVESTING AND YIELD
Pineapple plants get ready for harvest in 2 to 2.5 years. Flowers appear after 12 months from planting and fruits appear after 15 or 18 months. The ripening of fruits occurs after 5 months from flowering. The fruits for table use are harvested when completely ripe whereas the fruits for canning are harvested at an early stage. Each variety has a different eye colour in the fruit indicating its maturity or ripening level. If the soil is in good condition then the pineapple crop can be retained for ratoon crop production until 4 years. The weight and quality of the fruit reduces in the ratoon crops. The typical harvest months are July-August. Some varieties are also harvested in December till March. The average yield of the main crop is around 70 tonnes per hectare and that of ratoon crops is 50 tonnes per hectare. It is to be noted that there can be two ratoon crops at the maximum after the main crop.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
The grading of fruits is done on the basis of weight, size and colour.
The shelf life of pineapples is 15 days under normal conditions, but those which have to be transported are refrigerated at 10-13˚C for 20 days with a relative humidity of 80-90%.
Bamboo baskets are used to store fruits. The baskets are lined with paddy straw and the fruits are made to stand one on the other for local market dispatch. For distant places delivery, the pineapples are wrapped in straw and packed to avoid damage to the fruit.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – COST AND PROFIT ANALYSIS
The analysis is done for 1 acre of land. The model displays the basic things required to initiate farming in an area. The cost of material and labour may be different for other locations. The electricity charges, pump for irrigation, special irrigation systems, etc. have not been included or discussed in the calculation of investment. The general assumptions are listed here:
Number of plants accommodated in 1 acre of land: 10000.
Labour cost for 1 day: Rs 300.00.
The spacing between plants is: 30 cm x 45 cm x 120 cm.
Cost of 1 pineapple sapling: Rs 40.00.
|LABOUR FOR FARM ACTIVITIES||INVESTMENT (IN Rs)|
|Preparing the land and planting||20,000.00|
|Adding manure to the soil||8000.00|
|Pest and insect control measures||3000.00|
|Mulching the soil||2400.00|
|Harvesting and selling||6000.00|
|MATERIALS FOR THE FARM||INVESTMENT (IN Rs)|
|Planting material cost||40,000.00|
|Manure (FYM or organic)||10,000.00|
|Insecticides and pesticides||10,000.00|
The total investment in farming is: Rs 1, 74,400.00
The yield of fruit per acre is: 10000 kg.
Average price of 1 kg of pineapple: Rs 25.00.
Total income from the farm is: Rs 2, 50,000.00.
The profit on the investment is around: Rs 75,600.00.
PINEAPPLE FARMING PROJECT REPORT – LOANS AND SUBSIDES ON FARMING
Banks provide loans under the NABARD Horticulture scheme and it amounts to 85% of the unit cost.