Plant Tissue Culture Questions and Answers:
In the following write-up let us talk about ” Common Plant Tissue Culture Questions and Answers”
What is Plant Tissue Culture?
Well, plant tissue culture is the process of producing plants from tissues of the required plant in an artificial nutrient medium under controlled environment (like a greenhouse). The plants produced under this process are going to be 100 % replica (similar) of mother plan in all aspects.
What is Totipotency?
Totipotency signifies a feature which is nothing but producing a whole plant (100% similar in all aspects) by a single cell or the inherent potentiality of a plant cell to give rise to a whole plant is described as cellular Totipotency.
How Plant Tissue Culture/Micro Propagation is Carried Out?
As part of plant tissue culture, a small part of plant tissue is taken and used from the mother plant (donor plant) and grown (cultured) on a nutrient medium in sterile containers. The whole plant can be re-generated by changing the composition of the medium and other conditions like temperature and light (environmental conditions). Finally, the plant is re-produced from single plant tissue which will be 100% identical in all aspects.
What are the Advantages of Tissue Culture Plants or Micro-Propagation?
The following are the reasons why one should go for tissue cultured plants.
- The quality of tissue cultured plants is excellent as they are raised under a controlled environment.
- High degree of uniformity (true type plants) when compared to conventionally produced plants.
- The plants developed under tissue culture are free from diseases/pathogens.
- Tissue cultured plants are very vigorous and fast growing when compared to conventionally produced plants.
- It is the best way of multiplying plants at very fast. Plant tissue culture is very beneficial where it is not possible to propagate by cuttings or other traditional means of methods.
- Less labor is required for the maintenance of tissue cultured plants.
- Tissue cultured plants can be produced throughout the year.
- When it comes to yield and quality of produce, tissue cultured plants yield better as they are produced from selected mother plants under a controlled environment.
What is an Explant? What Types of Explants are Used in Plant Tissue Culture?
Well, an explant is a small portion of the plant which has the potential to regenerate and capable of giving rise to the whole plant which would be similar to donor plant in all aspects. The frequently used explants for regeneration purpose are; petiole, nodal segments, leaf disc, leaf blade, apical meristems, roots, cotyledons, embryo, pedicle, anther, and ovary.
What Commercial Crops Are Propagated through Plant Tissue Culture/Micro-propagation?:
The following crops are being commercially propagated using plant tissue culture in India.
- Fruit Crops: Apple, Banana, Fig, Grape, Pineapple, Strawberry and Citrus.
- Spice Crops: Turmeric, Ginger, Vanilla, Large cardamom, Small Cardamom, and Black Pepper.
- Cash Crops: Potato, and Sugarcane.
- Medicinal Plants: Stevia, Patchouli, Neem, Aloe Vera, and Geranium.
- Ornamental Crops: Gerbera, Syngonium, Carnation, Anthurium, Lily (Lillium), and Cymbidium.
- Bio-fuel Crops: Jatropha and Pongamia.
- Woody Plants: Teak, Populus, Bamboo, and Eucalyptus.
What is a mother plant?
Well, the mother plant is the source of tissues (explants) to be used for further multiplication of plants.
Are Tissue Culture Plants are prone to Pests and Diseases?
Of course, the tissue cultured plants are pests and disease free when the standard procedures are adopted while producing or re-generating the plants. Tissue cultured plants are also vulnerable to pests and diseases unless standard procedures are followed. However, tissue cultured plants are free from all soil-borne diseases.
Do Tissue Culture Plants Yield More?
When compared to conventional plants, tissue culture plants are uniform, vigorous and disease free. Under proper cultivation practices, tissue culture plants yield more when compared to conventional plants cultivation.
What are the Components of Plant Tissue Culture Nutrient Media?
The following are the constituents of tissue culture plant nutrient media: Plant growth regulators, Amino acids, Water, Inorganic salts, Vitamins, Carbon sources and Solidifying agents (For solid medium).
How Do Plant Growth Regulators Affect Plant Morphogenesis?
Two plant growth regulators Auxins and Cytokinins affect plant differentiation:
- Auxins: Stimulate root development
- Cytokinins: Stimulates shoot development
Usually, the ratio of these two growth regulators determines plant development.
- Cytokinin Greater Than Auxin = Shoot development
- Auxin Equals Cytokinin = Callus development
- Auxin Greater Than Cytokinin = Root development
What is Organogenesis?
It is the process of initiation and development of a structure that shows natural organ form.
What is Embryogenesis?
It is the process of initiation and development of embryos from somatic cells.
What is the Embryo Rescue Technique?
It is a vitro technique in which the embryo is cultured.
What are the Merits of Embryo Rescue Technique?
The merits are given below.
- Overcomes seed dormancy.
- Rescues F1 hybrid from a wide cross.
- Overcomes immaturity in the seed.
- Speeds generations in a breeding programme.
- Rescues across or self from a dead or dying plant.
What are the Different Stages of Micro-propagation?
The following are the various stages of micropropagation.
- Stage 0: Selection and preparation of the mother plant (Sterilization of the plant tissue takes place).
- First Stage: Initiation of culture (Explant placed into growth media).
- Second Stage: Multiplication (Explant transferred to shoot media; shoots can be constantly divided).
- Thirds Stage: Rooting (Explant transferred to root media).
- Fourth Stage: Transfer to the soil (Explant returned to soil; hardened off).
What is an Artificial Seed?
Artificial seeds can be formed by encapsulating the somatic embryos in 0.2% sodium alginate solution. This solution forms a gel at later stages and acts as a seed coat. These somatic embryos are called artificial seeds.
What is Photoautotrophic Micro-propagation?
It is a phenomenon of growing a plant in vitro environment without the addition of carbon source in the medium.
What are the in Vitro Parameters that Affect Plant Growth?
Water, photoperiods, plant growth regulators, temperatures, carbon sources, macro, and micronutrients and vitamins.
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What are the Parameters That Affect ex Vitro Growth of Plants?
Temperatures, soil type light, relative humidity, and soil characteristic.