The following information is all about Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project Report.
Rose is considered the ‘queen of flowers’ and is the most popular of all other garden flowers in the world. It is believed to be the oldest flowers under cultivation and ranks number 1 among the cut flower varieties in the international market. Flowers that are cut from the plant with a long stem and some leaves for ornamental purpose are termed as cut flowers. Cut flowers should have good quality and should be produced in great quantity for a successful business. Among all the cut flowers, a variety of rose called the Dutch rose has high demand in the international markets, but preferably with a high quality. It is quite easy to understand that cultivating excellent quality flowers under open environmental conditions throughout the year is extremely difficult because of irrelevant weather conditions and other threats. Therefore an economical way of protected cultivation can happen through a naturally ventilated structure called the polyhouse, which has a polyethylene covering material. Here the plants can be grown all round the year at comparatively lower costs than a greenhouse. A polyhouse has either complete or partial control over the environmental conditions so as to obtain perfect growth and excellent quality. The plants can be grown over the entire year without exploitation from external factors. While cultivating Dutch roses it is highly important to remember that an ideal cut flower should remain fresh in terms of colour and quality for certain duration of time and this greatly depends on the proper management of internal conditions within a polyhouse. This Polyhouse Dutch Rose cultivation project report describes in detail about the requirements of the plant within a polyhouse and at the end, it details about the cost of production and profits to be expected.
Cultivars or varieties of Roses for Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Popular Dutch rose varieties grown in India are top secret, gold strike, corvette, noblesse, bon heur, white avalanche, peach avalanche, sweet avalanche, tropical amazon, hot shot, sovereign etc. The colour of each variety may also be different, but the highest percentage of cultivation is done for the red Dutch rose which constitutes about 50-60% of total cultivation.
Scope and importance of Roses
Dutch rose is considered as an important cut flower variety with commercial importance. These flowers are exclusively grown in polyhouse in India because of their high demand in the foreign countries during various occasions like Valentine’s Day, New Year, Christmas and marriage ceremonies. The total production of Dutch roses in India is approximately around 0.03 thousand metric tonnes, which generated 141.45 lakhs rupees of income, thereby contributing heavily to the economy of the nation. Dutch rose is mainly cultivated in 4 Indian states; West Bengal, Karnataka, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh. The majority of the produce from the plants is for export purpose, which earns the farmer good returns. The government has also taken a step forward to support the Dutch rose cultivation by offering subsidies at various levels to encourage this sector.
Necessities for cultivation
The basic things required for Dutch rose cultivation in a polyhouse are orientation, design and management of polyhouse, soil preparation and sterilization, obtaining the proper planting material, irrigation, cultural practices, control of pests and diseases and fertilization. All these factors have been discussed below:
Polyhouse design for growing Dutch Roses
The polyhouse should be oriented in the North-South direction and should have a minimum length of 28 m, width of 20 m and central height of 6 m. the frame of the polyhouse can be made with galvanised iron pipes. Side and top ventilation areas should be around 1 m. the polyhouse is facilitated with a rollable low density polyethylene flap such that it can be used to control ventilation and also protect the plants during rain. The glazing material to be used for the polyhouse is made of low density polyethylene film of about 200 µ thickness which is ultraviolet stabilized. 50% shade net should be used inside the polyhouse to control the light and cooling effects. The drip irrigation system has to be installed inside the polyhouse for the entire crop area for supplying water regularly and adequately to the plants.
Climate requirement for Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Rose plants need sufficient light for growth. The optimum temperature within the polyhouse should be 15-28˚C with a relative humidity of around 85-90%. Rose plants perform best in tropical and subtropical climates of India.
Soil condition and sterilization in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Well drained soil with rich organic matter and good oxygen content is considered best for Dutch rose cultivation. 30% of organic matter is required on the top of the growing beds for rose plants. The pH of the soil should be maintained around 5 to 6.5. The Dutch rose plants can also be cultivated on artificial growing mediums like coco peat, rock wool and pumice. The land inside the polyhouse should be dug to a depth of 30 cm and all weeds, stones, unwanted materials etc. should be removed. Decomposed FYM, sand, coir pith in the ratio 2: 1: 1 should be added along with 10 kg of urea to the soil.
Soil sterilization is a process of disinfecting the soil before planting the new plants. One method of sterilizing the soil is to supply formalin @ 10 litres per sq m and cover it with polythene film for 4 days. The land is properly aerated after removing the film and irrigated thoroughly to flush out the residual chemicals. Another way of sterilizing the soil is with hydrogen peroxide and silver. It is considered to be the most cost efficient and effective way of sterilizing the soil for Dutch rose cultivation. Initially the land is irrigated and 35 ml of hydrogen peroxide is mixed with 1 litre of water and spread over the soil. This should be allowed to settle for 4-6 hours, after which planting can be done. It is estimated that 1 sq m of land needs 1 litre of the solution.
Soil bed preparation in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
In order to provide better drainage and aeration to the roots of the plant, raised soil beds are created for planting. The soil is made porous by adding gravel sand at the bottom of the bed. The best dimensions of the soil beds could possibly be as such: height of the bed should be around 45 cm, width at the top should be 90 cm and the spacing between the beds should be around 45 cm. Organic manure application to the bed can increase its texture and nutrition content.
Planting in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Mainly two types of planting material can be used for Dutch rose cultivation, such as: budded plants or top grafted plants. The proper choice of the variety is highly important for good results. Budded planting material which is 5 to 6 weeks old and free from all contamination can be used for planting. If the farmer chooses to plant two rows on a single soil bed, then the spacing between the plants should be around 18 cm and row spacing should be 30 cm. The estimated planting density for Dutch rose plants is about 8-10 plants/sq m. After planting, the humidity of the area has to be maintained at 80% to prevent desiccation of plants.
Fertilization in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
NPK fertilizers are applied as basal dose to the plants for the first 30 days after planting and later a typical Fertigation schedule is followed for cultivation. N: P: K in the ratio 1: 1: 1 @ 0.4 g per plant is applied during the vegetative stage of the plant. During the flowering period the ratio of N: P: K is 2: 1: 4 @ 0.4 g per plant. If the plant is nutrient deficient, then proper micro nutrient content should be applied every four days or once every week. 2 g of calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate per plant can be applied when needed. Regular soil analysis (once in 2-3 months) can keep the plants healthy.
Irrigation in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
During the early stages of plant growth sprinkler irrigation system is used to water the plants for up to four weeks until the root development. Later, to maintain uniform water distribution, pressure compensating drippers are used such that 2 laterals serve one soil bed. The discharge capacity of the dripper should be 1.2- 4 lph. Each Dutch rose plant is considered to consume 800-1000 ml of water per day. Drip irrigation should be given before noon. It is advisable to check the moisture level of the soil before irrigating to avoid excess water around the plants. During summer sprinkler irrigation can be used to maintain the humidity of the area. To check the water consumption of the plants one can use tensiometer or green finger method.
Intercultural practices in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Cultural practices of Dutch rose plant are followed for getting high production. They’re a series of activities during different stages of plant growth, which are described here:
Mother shoot bending in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
As soon as the planting material is planted, it is not allowed to flower immediately because if this happens the plant doesn’t get a structure and gets impaired. Initial flower growing on the plant is pinched about 1 month after planting such that 2 or more eye buds sprout and grow into branches that produce flower buds. At this stage the main shoot of the mother plant is bent almost close to the bud joint towards the path direction. This is done to initiate bottom break ground shoot.
Structuring the plant in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
To initiate multiple growing points within the plant, it has to be properly structured. Weak shoots are bent at ground level to form a strong frame for the plant to grow. 4-5 months after planting strong shoots should be cut at 5th five pair of leaves and less strong shoots should be cut at 2nd or 3rd five pair of leaves.
Leaf area in plants is maintained by bending them and it is highly important for a strong root system. On the bent stem, new growth is restricted and the buds are also removed. Weak and blind shoots are bent to break the apical dominance of the plant. Bending is mainly done on the 1st and 2nd five pairs of leaves. This process is done throughout the life cycle of the plant and should be avoided in summer so as to prevent mite incidence. An important precaution while bending the stems is that the leaves should not touch the soil and the stem should not break.
Disbudding in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
It is expected that each stem has one bud, but sometimes side buds can occur below the central bud. Removing these secondary buds is called disbudding. The buds should not be removed immediately as they appear or should not be left to be removed later. The exact time of the removal is when the bud shows sight color and attains the size of a pea. Generally buds on the thin and weak stem are removed.
Pinching of Plants in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Unwanted vegetative growth below the terminal bud is removed and it is termed as pinching. This method helps develop quality buds and flowers because it avoids the development of auxiliary bud.
Root stock removal in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Shoots that grow at the union of the root stock are considered wild and are removed because they use up the nutrients in the soil and hinder the main plant growth and development. These shoots are not cut, but are removed from the union.
Training / Plant support in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Bamboo sticks are inserted on both sides of the bed at 3 m interval and are fastened with plastic strings or GI wires with 30-40 cm intervals to support the growing plants.
Pruning of Dutch Rose plants in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation
During June-July, the plants are pruned so as to maintain their height and avoid weak sprouts.
Maintenance of beds in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
While watering the plants or due to hoeing and weeding, the fertile soil of the raised beds can slip to the pathway. This can be corrected by adding extra soil to the beds or by manually shifting the soil to the beds from the pathway.
Weeding and aeration in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
Weeding hook is used to remove all the unwanted algae on the soil layer. This helps in aerating the soil as well, but it should be done with care so as not to damage the roots of the rose plants.
When buds start appearing on the plant, bud caps are placed over them to increase its size and shape it well.
Removal of dieback in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
When plants are subject to wrong pruning or infected secateurs, dieback can occur. This is a condition in which the stem of the plant starts drying towards the bottom from the place of the cut. These diebacks should be removed from the plants and the secateurs should be disinfected before harvest.
Harvesting in Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project
The stem should be cut using a sharp instrument. The 5th five pair leaf should undergo ground shoot cutting such that one or two eye buds sprout from the lower leaves. Later the 2nd and 3rd five pair leaves should be harvested. Generally the thick stems are cut first to develop strong shoots. While harvesting the cut should be inclined so that water or spray doesn’t deposit over the stem. Harvesting of roses is done once during low temperatures, but if the temperatures are high a second harvest in the late afternoon is recommended. Harvesting needs skilled labour and is probably started after 12-15 weeks from planting. The estimated average yield of Dutch roses is about 230 flowers per sq m. The roses should be placed in a bucket containing 10 liters of clean, chlorinated water or water mixed with preservatives like Florissant and RVB chisel. The vase life of the cut flower depends greatly on its variety and is approximately 10-12 days.
Cost and profit analysis of Dutch Roses/Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation Project Report / Economics of Dutch Rose cultivation in Polyhouse
Anybody who is interested in starting a polyhouse Dutch rose farming business has to understand the investment structure. The estimation here is shown in a small polyhouse area of size 1008 sq m (i.e. One-fourth of an acre). These values should be considered for reference only. The charges may vary depending on the unit size and material availability in the area.
Assumptions of Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation:
Cost of planting material: Rs 15 per plant.
Cost of constructing polyhouse per sq m: Rs 750.
Electricity usage: 3 units per day.
Rate of labour per day: Rs 200.
No. of plants per sq m: 7.5.
|Materials required (fixed capital)||Investment in Rs|
|Constructing a polyhouse on 1008 sq m (includes glazing material, shade net, GI pipe structure)||7,56,000.00|
|Drip irrigation system with Foggers, Fertigation and filtration facilities||95,000.00|
|Fertile soil, FYM, sand, Rice husk etc.||1,12,000.00|
|Farm equipment and fertilizer storage||30,000.00|
|Material for cultivation (recurring costs)||Investment in Rs|
|Electricity charges @ 3 units per day||50,000.00|
|Water requirement per year||30,000.00|
|Water soluble fertilizers||30,000.00|
|Labour charges @ 3-4 labourers per day||2,16,000.00|
|Plant protection (pesticides and insecticides)||30,000.00|
|Other charges (transport, packing, etc.)||60,000.00|
|Total investment||3, 86,000.00|
Average yield per plant: 30 buds.
Average price per flower: Rs 3.
Income from the polyhouse after production: Rs 6, 80,400.00.
Profit generated from cultivation of Dutch roses is: 2, 94,400.00.
Subsidies for Polyhouse Dutch Rose Cultivation
The national horticulture board provides assistance to all the farmers from different regions based on their requirements. It is advisable to check with the local horticulture unit for the exact amount of subsidies for polyhouse Dutch rose cultivation.
Read: Polyhouse Subsidy.
Read: Gladiolus Growing.