Introduction to frequently asked questions about Biofloc fish farming:
Well, many people are asking questions about Biofloc fish farming system, here we tried our best to answer some of them. Hope these questions about Biofloc fish farming will help you for setting up a commercial Biofloc system.
A guide to questions about Biofloc fish farming with answers
What is Biofloc technology?
Biofloc farming technology is a system to remove waste from water. It was previously used to treat water coming into a farm and it is done so that no disease gets transferred. This system uses a set of bacteria that are good bacteria. These are probiotics and kill harmful bacteria. Thus maintaining the water quality. They have the capability to convert the nitrogen in the water, into proteins. Then, Biofloc fish farming in India is getting popular day by day. Biofloc fish farming is a wastewater treatment that has gained vital importance as an approach in aquaculture.
The Biofloc farming is an intensive aquaculture system, in which Biofloc or bacterial floc is introduced into reinforced Geomembrane lined aquaculture ponds, which convert the waste eliminated by aquatic creatures into the edible mass. This edible mass is rich in protein (50 to 65 % on dry matter basis), vitamins, and micronutrients and has a probiotic effect. And it improves the immune system of the aquatic animal. Usually, in the traditional system, the feed requirement is approximately 1.5 Kg per Kg of biomass. In Biofloc technology due to the recycling process of metabolic waste, there is a 30 % saving of feed. In traditional aquaculture, water exchange is required frequently, resulting in wastage of water and larger expenses. Biofloc reduces the need to exchange water.
What is the principle of Biofloc fish farming?
Biofloc technology is not only effective in treating the waste but grants nutrition to the aquatic animal. The higher C: N ratio is maintained through the addition of carbohydrate source (molasses) and the water quality is improved through the production of high-quality single-cell microbial protein. In such conditions, dense microorganisms develop and function as bioreactors controlling water quality and protein food sources. Immobilization of toxic nitrogen species occurs rapidly in Biofloc because the growth rate and microbial production per unit substrate of heterotrophs are ten-times greater than that of the autotrophic nitrifying bacteria. This Biofloc technology is based on the principle of flocculation within the system.
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Which species are best for Biofloc fish farming?
Biofloc systems work best with species that are able to derive nutritional benefit from the direct consumption of floc. Biofloc systems are most suitable for species that can tolerate high solids concentration in water and are generally tolerant of poor water quality. Almost all Biofloc systems are used to grow shrimp, tilapia, or carps. Some of the species like hybrid striped bass and Channel catfish are main examples of fish that are not good candidates for Biofloc systems as they do not tolerate water with high solids concentrations and they do not have adaptations to filter solids from water.
Is Biofloc fish farming successful?
The Biofloc is not only effective in treating the waste but also grants nutrition to the fish and shellfish farming. It is cost-effective in which toxic materials to the fish and shellfish such as Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonia can be converted to proteinaceous feed.
How do you make fish Biofloc?
Start aeration to prepare water in Biofloc. Now it is an important part of water preparation in the Biofloc system. First, you want to add 1 kg salt per 10000 L of water.
How to prepare water in Biofloc;
- Wash Pond Cleanly – First clean tank to start water preparation. This we are doing to prevent the tank from harmful bacteria.
- Fill the tank approximately 50% of their capacity – After washing the tank start filling water in the tank and fill water tank approximately 35-50% by freshwater. Don’t fill more than this because bacteria require a certain environment to grow.
- Start aeration – Now start the aeration process to mix oxygen with water. Like other animal fish also require oxygen and during aeration, we flow oxygen through pumps. Therefore, start aeration to prepare water in Biofloc.
- Add Salt, Caco3, and Probiotic – Now it is an important part of water preparation in the Biofloc system. First, you want to add 1 kg salt per 10000 L of water. Salt helps water to maintain TDS and help fish in strain. Then, add Caco3 (Calcium Carbonate) in water.
What is FCR Biofloc?
Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) – The FCR means the amount of feed consumed by fish to increase 1 g of fish weight, calculated to measure fish growth rate and consumed feed.
How Biofloc is useful in fish farming?
In the aquaculture system, the strong influential factors are the feed cost (accounting to 60% of the total production cost) and the limiting factor is the water or land availability. And high stocking density and rearing of aquatic animals require wastewater treatment.
The problem of extensive fish culture in ponds is to keep the water quality and before Biofloc’s way was to recycle 10% of the water frequently. But in some places, water is not present in abundance and replacing the old water with a new one disturbs the growth of fish. So Biofloc came to solve all these difficulties.
The agent that obstructs fish growth is ammonia. In Biofloc fish farming, we use probiotic. It utilizes the ammonia from the tank and grows in numbers by reproduction. Then, they convert harmful ammonia and waste matter into proteins. The fishes on the tanks eat these proteins. As an effect, the amount of feed given to the fishes decreases. They are already eating the proteins from the flocs. So, the feeding cost decreases by 20%-30%.
Explain about water preparation in Biofloc fish farming
First, you need to fill the tank with water. Then you must check its pH and TDS( Total dissolved salts). The pH level should be between 7.5 to 8 and TDS should be in the range of 1400-1600. If the pH level is low then add CaCO3. To increase TDS add raw salt and please make sure the salt is non-iodized. Provide aeration to the tank for one day to get complete mixing. After one day, add Probiotic powder of about 2 grams per 100 liters of water. Along with its mixed carbon source, for example, molasses of 10 grams per 100 liters of water. Then aeration should be provided and the floc takes 7 days to form. Therefore, it will be ready for fish stocking.
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How does Biofloc system work?
Biofloc system focus on the efficient use of nutrient input with zero water exchange. Biofloc is a wastewater treatment and developed to mitigate the introduction of diseases into aquaculture farms from incoming water. They treat wastes from feeding and give nutrition from floc consumption.
How do you control ammonia in a Biofloc tank?
We add urea to the pond and try to control the ammonia that develops by adding molasses and rice bran, hoping that heterotrophic bacteria will develop and reduce the ammonia. Also, we add commercial bacteria as well.
Factors that can affect the profit in Biofloc farming?
There are many factors which can affect the profit in Biofloc farming;
- Type of fish species you are planning to harvest
- The market you have selected to sell
- How successful you are in controlling disease
- Your FCR ration
What is the equipment required for Biofloc Setup?
- Iron frame
- Tarpaulin tank
- Aeration pump
- PVC pipe
- Air tube
- Air tube Connectors
- Test kits
What are the composition and nutritional value of Biofloc?
Biofloc system is a heterogeneous aggregate of suspended particles and microorganisms associated with extracellular polymeric substances. It is composed of microorganisms that are bacteria, algae, fungi, invertebrates, and detritus, etc. It is a protein-rich live feed formed as a result of the conversion of unused feed and excreta into a natural food in culture on exposure to sunlight. Each floc is held together in a loose matrix of mucus that is secreted by bacteria and bound by filamentous microorganisms. Large flocs can be seen with the naked eye, but most of them are microscopic and floc size range from 50 to 200 microns. A good nutritional value is found in the Biofloc system. The dry weight protein ranges from 25 to 50 percent, fat ranges from 0.5 to 15 percent. And it is a good source of vitamins and minerals, particularly phosphorous. It has an effect similar to probiotics. Then, the dried Biofloc is proposed as an ingredient to replace the fishmeal or soybean in the feed. The nutritional quality is good, only limited qualities are available.
Which bacteria are used in Biofloc?
Biofloc system has some microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria, algae, fungi, nematodes, metazoans, and detritus that conglomerate together and also perform symbiotic processes to keep the water quality, support a high density of fish culture and reduce water exchange in the aquaculture system.
How to maintain floc in Biofloc fish farming?
The amount of flock you have to maintain in Biofloc fish farming is 30 to 40 ml per 1000 ml. This is essential. If floc decreases then the ammonia level will increase in the tank. If floc increases then the water will become dense, it will be difficult for the fishes to breathe. So maintaining the floc is important. If floc increases then replace old water with new water. If floc decreases then add about 25 mg probiotic along with some molasses to your tank.
How do you maintain pH in Biofloc?
Add Alum or an Organic Substance. It is difficult to reduce pH levels significantly by adding an acid to the water because pond waters are usually buffered by bases of the alkalinity system. Relatively large amounts of acid are therefore needed to achieve a meaningful decrease in pH level.
Does NFDB financially assist Bio floc technology?
National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) has many Schemes assisting Various Farming Technologies under Innovative Farming. Bio Floc can be considered under Innovative Farming. Yet a Scheme solely for Bio Floc is being made and will be available for all the Farmers or Entrepreneurs soon.
What are the benefits of Biofloc culture system?
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- Improved Biosecurity
- Improved feed conversion
- Improved water quality control
- Reduced sensitivity to weather changes
- Eco-friendly culture system.
- Reduces environmental impact.
- Improves land and water use efficiency
- Limited or zero water exchange
- Higher productivity (It enhances survival rate, growth performance, and feed conversion in the culture systems of fish).
- Reduces water pollution and the spread of pathogens.
- Cost-effective feed production.
- Reduces utilization of protein-rich feed and also the cost of standard feed.
- Reduces the pressure on capture fisheries, which means, use of cheaper food fish and trash fish for fish feed formulation.
What are the disadvantages of Biofloc Technology?
- Increased energy requirement for mixing and aeration
- Start-up period required
- Alkalinity supplementation required
- Increased pollution potential from nitrate accumulation
- Inconsistent and seasonal performance for sunlight-exposed systems
What is the cost of a Biofloc aquaculture tank?
The cost of PVC Biofloc Aquaculture Tank will be approximately Rs 4,000/ Unit and
The cost of Biofloc tank fish farming will be approximately Rs 10,000/Piece.
That’s all folks about questions of Biofloc fish farming system. You may also like the How to Earn Money with Quail Farming.