Introduction: Hello farmers, we will find out Rose farming income, cost of cultivation and yield per acre. Rose is one of the highest-selling flowers in International market. It is used in every event and has good medicinal value. Rose flowers are available in various sizes, shapes and also in different colors. Roses have unique aroma, hence, is used in many events. Rose petals have many medicinal properties that include stress and depression relief and also it is used to treat acne. The scientific name of the Rose is Rosa and belongs to the family Rosaceae. It is a woody perennial flowering plant. Roses are mostly used in perfumes and in the preparation of rose water, which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. These are rich in volatile essential oils.
A step by step guide for Rose farming income, methods, costs involved
Rose farming is the most profitable business for farmers. In India it is grown in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Haryana, Gujarat, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are the major Rose farming states.
Roses cannot grow well in humid climate but can tolerate high temperatures. Temperature below 10°C will affect flowering and also develops blind shoots and bullheads. Rose plants need complete exposure to sun rays, hence shady areas are not at all suitable. The ideal temperature for the growth and good yield of Rose flowers is 18-30°C and the sowing temperature varies from 25-30°C.
Well-drained sandy loam soils rich in organic matter are best suitable for Rose cultivation. The pH of the soil should range from 6-7.5. Rose plants are sensitive to waterlogging and hence, a proper drainage system should be maintained. It can grow well in the rainfall of 200-300mm. Sandy loam, Red loam, Slit loam with good water holding capacity are ideal for Rose cultivation.
Varieties of Roses
Below are the popular varieties and are classified into 3 main groups:
1. Species Roses; these are called wild roses with five petals and available in bright colors. They last a long time in winter. Some of the examples of Species Roses are Rosa rugose, Banksiae, Multiflora, Foetida, etc.
- Old Garden Rose; these are more attractive and scented, these grow very easily and are disease resistant and sustain well in winter. Some of its examples include Moss Roses, Alba, Centifolia, Macrantha, Noisette, etc.
Modern Roses; are most popular and are obtained from cross-breeding of hybrid tea and primrose which are in various colors rich and vibrant. Example: Hybrid Tea Roses, Landscape Rose, Floribunda Rose, Yellow Permet Rose, Grandiflora Roses, American Pillar, Centifolia Rose, Polyantha, etc.
Plough the soil thoroughly till the soil is bought to fine tilth. Plowing and hoeing operations should be carried 4-5 times to make the soil ready for plantation.While pitspreparation adds 2 tons of fully and well-decomposed cowdung, leaf mould, bone meal, urea-25 Kg and 2 Kg of Superphosphate to the soil and is followed by leveling process to form uniform beds. The land has to be exposed to sun rays for about 15-20 days before planting the rose plantlets. The size of pits should be 45cm x 45cm x 30cm. The distance between the pits so pit should be 1m and the distance between rows to row should also be 1meter. An 1 acre can accommodate 7,000 plants. Rose plantlets are planted after a 1-week refilling of pits.
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Planting the Rose Plantlets
Rose plantlets are planted in the circular pits of about 80cm across and 70cm deep. Plantlets should be planted during September or October. Plantation should be done in the evening hours. Rose plantlets can be propagated by seeds, cutting, layers, and by budding. Budding is the ideal method for commercial propagation of Rose Plants.
The offshoots and suckers should be removed frequently that originate from the base of the rootstock stem or below the grafted point, these will retard the growth and leads to death of the whole plant. The offshoots should be pinched off as soon as it comes up. To suppress these, a small quantity of ferrous sulfate dissolved in water should be applied to the shrub.
The plant should be watered twice in a week from October to March and once in a week from April to June. No irrigation is provided during rainy season. The proper drainage system should be maintained to avoid waterlogging. Drip irrigation is the best method for Rose cultivation whereas, sprinkler irrigation has a chance of causing infection of leaf disease.
At the interval of 3 months after planting apply NPK at a ratio of 8:8:16g per plant. These fertilizers should be applied after completing the pruning method to increase the flower production 1 month after pruning, spay GA3@200ppm (0.2 g\Litre) at early vegetative stage. Stress tolerance can be improved by spraying Rizom@100g and Teeepol@60ml in 100 Litre water per acre. This is a soluble root stimulant and has to be sprayed in evening time after irrigation.
Agrowaste like straw, grass clippings, rice husk, sawdust, and dried leaves, used tea or leaf moulds are spread around root zone of the plant with a radius of 1 foot and 5 inches thickness. In recent times, polyethylene black or white sheet is used to mulch which proved effective results.
Pruning of Roses
Careful observation is required to remove the old and diseased stems so that to allow healthy shoots to grow and bare good flowers. This should be done during wintertime. The first fortnight of October is the ideal time for pruning, too many branches or shoots reduce the quantity of flowering. Roses take about 35-60 days from pruning to flowering it mainly depends on variety and severity of pruning.
Rose plant protection
Rose plants get affected by pests like caterpillars, thrips, afits, and leafhopper. Caterpillars can be controlled by spraying Methomile along with sticker of 1ml per Litre, whereas thrips, afits, and leafhoppers can be controlled by Carbofuran 3G 5g per plant. Diseases like leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2.5 g per Litre of water. This spray has to be repeated with an interval of 8 days. Powdery mildew can be controlled by sprayingFlusilazole 40ml + Teeepol 50ml per 100 Litre of water per acre. Dieback is the most common disease observed in Rose plantation if not controlled properly it causes huge loss. This can be controlled by spraying Chlorothalonil 2g + Teeepol 0.5ml per Litre of water with a power sprayer.
Harvesting of rose flowers
Economical yield for Rose plant is obtained from the 2nd year of cultivation. Harvesting can be done by using sharp hand pruners and when the color of flower is fully developed and the first two petals start unfolding. Harvesting should be done early in the morning or late afternoon. After harvesting roses are placed in a container filled with freshwater having disinfectant and preservative. Flowers are preserved in precooling chamber having 10-12°C for 12 hours then the flowers are graded based on the stem length and quality.
The yield of roses per acre
Now, let us calcuate the rose farming income from 1 acre cultivation yield.
Roses yield 25-30 flowers per plant. In an acre, for an average of 5,000 plants yield about 1,50,000 Roses.
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Costs involved in Rose farming per 1 acre
Land Rent = Rs. 2,00,000 (yearly)
Land preparation = Rs.20,000
Planting materials = Rs. 80,000
Manures and Fertilizers= Rs. 20,000
Plant protection= Rs. 15,000
The cost of Irrigation = Rs. 50,000
Labour Charges = Rs.60,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs.20,000
Packaging materials = Rs. 15,000
Total cost = Rs. 3,80,000
Rose farming income from 1 acre
Farm gate price: If the farmer sells the produce at his farm to flower agent, each cut flower cost Rs. 3, which is purely based on the variety of Rose which the farmer has chosen. So the income sums up to 1,50,000 x3 = Rs.4,50,000
Profit = Income – costs involved = Rs. 4,50,000 – Rs. 3,80,000 = Rs. 70,000. Hence the profit is Rs. 70,000 per 1 acre.
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Note: The income of rose farming depends on soil type, climate, variety, yield, season, market deamand, and planting method. The price of Rose changes from market to market, place to place and region to region.
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