Sandalwood Farming Project Report, Cost and Profit:
The following content is about Cultivation Practices of Sandalwood and Sandalwood Farming Project Report in 1 acre land.
Introduction of Sandalwood Farming Project Report.
Sandalwood is one of tree species are the most widely accepted fragrant trees around the world. The aromatic wood retains its fragrance for decades and the wood is heavy and yellow in color. There are many sandalwood species spread across the world. Sandalwood is also found in many regions such as Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Hawaii, Sri Lanka, and in other Pacific islands. It is native to Australia and India, while the oil and wood of Indian sandalwood which is often referred as East Indian Sandalwood is highly valued in the world market. The highly valued aromatic oil, which is in yellow color is extracted from both tree wood and roots. The sandalwood odor persists in articles made of sandalwood for decades.
It is an evergreen tree with slow growth rate reaching a height of about 10 to 15 m with girth size up to 1 to 2.5 m. It takes nearly 30 years for the tree to reach economic activity. The leaves are leathery and in pairs on either side of the stem. Matured leaves are bluish to greenish yellow in color while young leaves are pinkish green or lush green making the tree look evergreen. The bark of young trees is reddish brown and smooth while maturing trees have rough, dark brown color with deep vertical cracks. The inward part of the bark remains reddish in color. The tree is a hemi-parasitic on other tree species roots. The tree roots spread wide and forms ‘root grafting’ with nearby tree roots. By attaching its roots with nearby tree roots, it obtains water and nutrients for its growth. The flowering of the tree depends on the altitude, flowering starts a month early on trees growing at lower altitudes compared to trees at higher altitudes. The young flowers are yellow and changes to deep purplish brown on maturation. It takes a month from bud stage initiation to anthesis and three months for fruit ripening from the initial stage. Sandalwood trees can be divided into three groups; trees that flower once in a year during September to December, trees that flower twice in a year during March to May and September to December, and there are trees that do not flower even after 15 years. The sandalwood tree grows well on various sets of environmental and climatic conditions such as altitude, rainfall, soil, and etc.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Restrictions and Legal Formalities in Sandalwood Farming
The government has lifted ban on growing sandalwood growing and farming since 2002. Earlier, the government was the sole owner even if sandalwood trees grown in private lands. Cutting down sandalwood trees was punishable under the Forest Act 1927. Presently government issued a notification that gives ownership and selling rights to farmers and private cultivators. Those young entrepreneurs who want to do sandalwood farming and like to have sandalwood plantations must follow few legal formalities before you start. The good news from the government for such individuals is, the Government of India through National Medicinal Plants Board a Department of I.S.M & H provides 30% subsidy to sandalwood farmers and entrepreneurs. Loan facilities can be availed from Nationalized, Co-operative Banks for sandalwood farming projects. All the sandalwood farming projects and plantations do not require a license, but must be duly registered with state or district forest office. At the time of registration you need to mention the number of sandal trees that are being planted and when you want to harvest (cut) the trees. Government permission must be taken and under the presence of a Forest Range Officer cutting or harvesting can be done.
By producing Chitta, Adankal number, and Survey number, entrepreneurs or farmers can purchase sandalwood saplings from forest office. All the sandalwood plants must be registered in notebooks of VAO and should be renewed each year in register Basali. Harvested wood logs can be sold in public auctions and to participate one should have registered with the respective District Forest Officers. Principal Chief Conservator of Forests will fix the sandalwood rate every year and based on the fixed rate the sandalwood can be sold. The Range Forest Officer is the one that issues transit pass to move the sandalwood and Felling permits. Below are the concerned officers’ details on issuing Felling permits for retail sale of sandalwood:
- Up to 5 kg of Sandalwood to private individuals – District Forest Officer.
- Up to 10 kg to private individuals or up to 100 kg to temples – Conservator of Forests.
- Up to 50 kg to private individuals or up to 500 kg to temples – Chief Conservator of Forests.
Obtaining specific orders and permission, farmers can transport sandalwood from one place to another and sell with ease. The inspection fee will be charged per tree and fee charges differ from trees grown in residential / institution areas and trees grown in commercial areas. Permission and fees must be done for selling trees existing on Patta land or Government land shall be obtained from the state government and those intending to sell trees in lands that are recorded as “forest” should obtain permission from the Government of India.
For more information on growing and selling sandalwood, one has to approach the concerned state government forest departments as fees and permissions may differ from state to state.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Scientific / Botanical name of Sandalwood:
The scientific name of sandalwood plant is Santalum album, belonging to the family Santalaceae.
Santalum album – commonly found and grown in India, China, Indonesia, and Philippines.
Santalumspicatum, Santalummurrayanum, Santalumobtusifolium, and Santalumacuminatum– commonly found and grown in Australia.
Santalumaustrocaledonicum – commonly found and grown in the Pacific Islands (New Caledonia, Vanuatu).
Santalumboninense – commonly found and grown in South Japan Islands (Bonin Islands).
Santalumellipticum, Santalumfreycinetianum, Santalumhaleakalae, Santalumpaniculatum– commonly found and grown in Hawaii.
Santalummacgregorii – commonly found and grown in Papua New Guinea.
Santaluminsulare – commonly found and grown in the South Pacific Islands (French Polynesia, Cook Islands).
Santalumyasi – commonly found and grown in the South Pacific Islands (Fiji, Niue, Tonga, Samoa).
Other names of Sandalwood Tree
Sandalwood trees are known for its perfume and for its priced wood value. The tree is widely known throughout the world by various names such as Ananditam, Hule de Santal Blanc, Bois de Santal Blanc / SantalJaune, SafedChandan / Chandan, Chandana, SwetChandan, East Indian Sandalwood, Yellow Sandalwood, Sandal Tree, Sanderswood, Santali Lignum Albi, Santal, Taliaparnam, Tan Xiang, White / Yellow Saunders.
Sandalwood in Indian Languages
- Gujarati –ચંદન (Candana),
- Malayalam – ചന്ദനം (candanaṁ),
- Telugu – గంధపు (Gandhapu),
- Kannada –ಶ್ರೀಗಂಧದಮರ (Śrīgandhadamara),
- Tamil – சந்தன (Cantaṉa),
- Hindi – चंदन (Chandan),
- Bangle – চন্দন (Candana),
- Marathi – चंदन (Candana),
- Punjabi – ਡਰਾਮੇਸਟਿਕ (ḍarāmēsaṭika).
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Sandalwood Varieties / Sandalwood Cultivars
The most common sandalwood varieties that are commercially grown are:
- Indian Sandalwood.
- Australian Sandalwood.
- Red Sandalwood.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Climate and Soil Requirement for Sandalwood Farming
Places with moderate rainfall, full sun, and mostly dry weather in a year. They grow well in tropical and sub-tropical regions where the climate is hot and humid. Sandalwood plants grow well in various soils such as sandy, red clay, and clay-rich black soils. Soils that are red ferruginous loam are preferable with 6.0 to 7.5 soil pH value. Sandalwood tolerates gravelly soil, rocky ground, high winds, intense heat, and drought conditions. Though they prefer lots of sun but will grow in part shade. They thrive well in 13° to 36° C temperature and with an annual rainfall between 825 to 1175 millimeters. Sandalwood is sensitive and does not tolerate water logging. Lands in the altitude regions of 1960 to 3450 feet are most preferred for proper and full growth.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Land Preparation in Sandalwood Farming
Unlike other plantations, sandalwood plantations need appropriate sites for proper tree development. Lands that have a slope facing north to west with good sunlight are preferable. Lands with free-draining soils are ideal for plantation. Land should be ripped at least to 40 cm depth. Prepare the land with a couple of deep plowing to bring the soil to a fine tilth for facilitating root penetration. Add a good amount of farmyard manure in the last plow. Clear all the weeds from the site, leaving trees that will serve as good hosts.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Seed Treatment in Sandalwood Farming
Before planting sandalwood seeds, seed treatment will make germination easier and earlier. Depending on the area of farmland to be planted, soak the required amount of seeds in water for 24 hours. Soaked seeds must be dried in the open sun for a day, which makes the seeds crack a little. Cracked seeds are good for planting which makes seed germination easily and early.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Propagation in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood can be propagated either by seed or vegetative. In seed propagation which is also called generative propagation, treated seeds are used for field propagation. In vegetative or tissue culture propagation is carried out by grafting, air layering or by root cuttings. Most commercial selling sandalwood saplings use tissue culture propagation. This method is easy to perform giving about 60% success rate. Vegetative propagation is greatly influenced on the time of planting such as cuttings planted in early April did better than cuttings planted in May month. Application of Seradix B2 is observed to be advantageous in vegetative propagation, stem cuttings started sprouting within 23 days and less than 100 days for root development.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Planting Sandalwood Seedlings in Sandalwood Farming
Before planting of sandalwood seedlings take place in the farmland, host plants should be raised early for pricking out together with young sandalwood plants. Some of the plants such as indigenous acacia species, pigeon pea, Croton megalocarpus and other are appropriate host plants for sandalwood farming. As the success rate of germination is less along with 20% mortality occurring in the field; how much amount of sandalwood seeds is required to sow in nursery in order to achieve the target number of sandalwood trees to be raised. One can follow this simple equation S = (N x 3.57) /8100; where N equals to number of sandalwood trees to be planted, and S is the kilogram of seeds to sow. For example, to raise 1000 sandalwood trees, a nursery should sow (1000 x 3.57)8100 which results 0.45 kg seed required to raise 1000 plants.
Plant spacing and dimensions between sandalwood plants and host plants plays an important role in sandalwood farming. Host plants would include intermediate host plants and long-term host plants. Pits of sizes 45 x 45 x 45 cm are dug with a minimum spacing of 300 x 600 cm or 500 x 500 cm that includes about 350 to 400 sandalwood plants per acre. Each pit is filled with red soil and farmyard manure or compost in 1:2 ratios. In each row at about every fifth tree, a long-term plant is planted and at every 150 cm distance from sandalwood plant an intermediate plant is planted. The intermediate plants must not be taller than the sandalwood plant, hence regular pruning is required. Seedlings that are 6 to 8 months old or those plants about 30 cm in height are ideal to be transplanted to the main field. The young sandalwood plants must be well-branched with a brown stem.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Irrigation in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood that is fully established is rain-fed and may require watering in summer time. Young sandalwood plants are to be provided with irrigation in summer season once in 14 to 21 days intervals. In hot and summer days water can be provided through drip irrigation and depending on the soil moisture retention capacities provide irrigation in the months from December to May.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Manures and Fertilizers in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood farming doesn’t have a fixed fertilizer formulation. Some of the farmers before planting sandalwood plantation prefer to incorporate 8 tonnes of farmyard manure each year per acre. At the time of planting the sandalwood saplings and in the initial years, chemical fertilizers are given depending on the soil fertility results. As the trees draw nutrients it needs from nearby host plants by connecting its roots to the host tree root system, they can thrive well under minimum fertilizers and manures. Organic manures such as compost, farmyard manure, and green-manure would be having a definite added advantage of the tree growth.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Intercultural Operations during Sandalwood Farming
Weeding is to be done thoroughly in the first year, followed by regular weeding at regular intervals. This will help to prevent nutrient loss and soil moisture. For additional income farmers can go for intercrops to make use of best land utilization and soil management. Short duration crops that have shallow root system are highly favored for inter crop that ensures inter cultivation.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Pests and Diseases in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood trees are prone to 150 varieties of insects, but only a few insects will impact on the economic performance of the sandalwood farm. It is observed that the pests will create maximum damage to the plant at the nursery stage and below a year plant. There are also few insects that will damage trees of their growth and reproduction.
Sandalwood at Nursery Stage: Defoliators and Sapsuckers are the main pests that attack young saplings.
The insect Cryptotheleacramerii Westwood (Psychidae: Lepidoptera) damages the young seedling by cutting off seedling stem at the ground level.
The Weevil insect Sympiezomiascretaceis Faust (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) feeds mainly on leaves. They eat from the leaf edges towards the midrib while the adult weevils eat in circular holes making the leaf to fall. These insects hide under the leaves or inside curled leaves during the daytime and at night they are active in feeding.
Holochloraalbida Kirby (Locustidae: Orthopetera) is a type of grasshopper insect are green in color and resemble just like a normal leaf. These insects can hardly be detected until they move. They feed on sandalwood seedling by gnawing on its tender shoots.
Letana inflate Brunner is a type of grasshopper that is slender and resembles the sandalwood seedling stem. The adult lays eggs at the juicy and fleshy sandalwood seedling stem parts. The eggs are laid in longitudinal slits and when the slit swells causing damage to the seedlings as they crack laterally. The adult insect feeds voraciously on the foliage.
Teratodesmonticollis Gray (Acridiae: Orthipetera) is another type of grasshopper insect that is dull green in color but brighter under the wings. This insect is considered to be a major defoliator of sandalwood seedlings. The body of the insect back is produced into a sharp hood resembling a leaf appearance, making it well camouflaged with the sandalwood seedlings.
AcanthopsychemooreiHeyl and Pteromaplagiophleps (Psychidae: Lepidoptera) is a bagworm insect, the black caterpillar defoliates the leaves giving them a burnt appearance. They cause total defoliation and the sandalwood seedlings dry up.
Insects from the family Coccidae: Hemiptera such as Saissetianigra, Saiseetiacoffeae, Pulvinariapsidi, Pulvinaria maxima, Ceroplastesactiniformis, Inglisiabivalvata, Tachardinalacca, Aspidiotussp and 50 more species are Sapsucker insects that attack both Sandalwood seedlings as well as trees.
Aspidiotussp insect feed on leaves, causing yellowing and wilting of sandalwood nursery plants. They cause minor damage.
Saissetiacoffeae and nigra insect species feed on leaves and tender shoots of young sandalwood plants. The adult female coffeae species are shiny, brown, and elliptical in shape while adult female nigra species are black and larger. They settle near the under parts of the sandalwood plant and feed on the sap of leaves and tender shoots making them die back.
Pulvinaria maxima pest is commonly found on Neem trees, the adult female is leathery pale brown causing considerable damage to young sandalwood trees. Psidii insect species, mainly infest sandalwood nurseries causing much damage. Large numbers of females gather on tender shoots and tender stems while the males suck sap from the leaves. These insects cause premature leaf fall.
Ceroplastesactiniformis Green is another insect that drains sap severely to the sandalwood seedlings and leaves of the trees. Being sapsuckers they form sooty molds beneath the leaves leading to die back and cause death to the seedlings in the nursery. These insects have thick, pale white waxy or pink waxy spherical enclosing into a central cone area. Spraying monocrotophos (0.02 to 0.05%) will kill and control the spread of the insects in the nursery.
Tachardinalacca Kerr, the lac insect is one of the major destroyers of Sandalwood farm. They attack trees severely along with the young sandalwood seedlings in the nursery too. By using 0.5% of Quinalphos (Ekalux 20 AF) or 0.2% of Dimethoate mixed with 0.05% sticker is sprayed to control the pest menace.
Inglisiabivalvata Green is another sapsucker insect that will cause browning and withering of the leaves. Saplings at the nursery will get succumb to severe attack. The adult male has wings while the female is wingless and sedentary. The young scale insects settle on the tender branches by moving out from underneath the scales of females to suck the sap. As these insects are found to last throughout the year, spray 0.2 to 0.3% of Chlorpyriphos or Quinalphos can control this insect menace effectively.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Harvesting in Sandalwood Farming
The best years to harvest sandalwood is when the trees are 25 plus years old. Two harvests can be undertaken in a year from March to May and from September to October. The Heartwood forms well in maturing trees that are 30 plus years old that attain a girth of 40 to 60 cm. 20 to 50 kg of heartwood can be harvested at an average from a tree with a girth 50 to 60 cm. It is recommended to use latest cutting equipment than cutting with axes, as each wood piece is valuable and not to lose any wood chips. By removing the sapwood, Heartwood of sandalwood trees is then to mill or for marketing. Some commercial farmers having sandalwood farms harvest 10 to 15-year-old trees which attain girth 15 to 25cm. The essential oil obtained from young trees has low-grade and less quantity desirable oil. Young entrepreneurs must note that 8 to 12 years old have low-grade wood, trees that are 13 years old have 12% high-grade wood, and trees that are 28 years old have 67% high-grade wood. The value of essential oils depends on the quality and grade of the harvested trees. The older the sandalwood trees are, the more yield and quality can be derived. Often the wild sandalwood trees that are 60 plus years old are the ultimate producers of quality essential oils.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Sandalwood Heartwood in Sandalwood Farming
- Heartwood is the portion that contains sandalwood oil. Heartwood is found beneath the outer layer known as sapwood in the sandalwood tree.
- The ratio of Heartwood to sapwood varies between sandalwood tree varieties.
- The yield and quality of sandalwood oil depend on the size of Heartwood. Larger and old sandalwood trees contain a high proportion of Heartwood.
- Dark colored Heartwood is rich in oil content with great market demand.
- Heartwood of the sandalwood tree can be obtained from tree branches, trunk, stump, and roots,
- In commercial sandalwood farming, farmers harvest trees based on size than considering the age of the tree. Trees that have 13 plus centimeter diameter with sapwood less than 1/6th diameter of the tree at 130cm above the ground are considered one of the measurements for harvesting.
- Trees that fall or die by itself of any size can be harvested as the oil is retained for many years in the dead wood.
- The stump and larger roots of sandalwood tree varieties such as album, spicatum, and austrocaledonicum are harvested as they contain highest oil content and best quality wood.
- Chipped branches and sawdust can be used in incense preparation.
Yield in Sandalwood Farming
Sandalwood trees are considered to be growing very slowly. It takes 8 to10 years for Heartwood formation. The growth rate of sandalwood tree will be 1cm girth per year in forest conditions while the growth rate is 4cm to 5cm girth per year under favorable moisture and soil conditions along with good farming practices. Studies show the yield of sandalwood as follows:
|Tree Age||Girth @ breast height||Heartwood Yield|
|10 years||10 – 12 cm||1 kg|
|20 years||20 – 22 cm||4 kg|
|30 years||30 – 33 cm||10 kg|
|40 years||40 – 44 cm||20 kg|
|50 years||50 – 55 cm||30 kg|
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Costs and Profits in Sandalwood Farming / Economics of Sandalwood Farming:
Investment and Maintenance pattern on Sandalwood farming in the one-acre land. Pricing is subjective to change depending on the region of cultivation. The figures in this project report are not accurate, but to give an understanding to young entrepreneurs on investment and the returns of the Sandalwood farming business project. Given below is the cost and returns of Sandalwood plantation farming. A Sandalwood farm can sustain yield for up to 60+ years, starting from 8 to 10 years onwards. About 420 sandalwood plants are planted at spacing 3m x 3n spacing in an acre land.
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- Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Establishing Cost for Sandalwood Plantation:
|1.||Young Sandalwood Plants (420 @ 70/-)||29,400/-|
|2.||Plant replacement (20% mortality) for 2nd and 3rd year. ( 84 @ 70/-)||5,880/-|
|3.||Host plants (450 @ 10/-)||4,500/-|
|4.||Labor cost (planting and weeding for 8 years @ 10,000/-)||80,000/-|
|5.||Manure and Fertilizer (970 pits @ 10/-)||9,700/-|
|6.||Herbicides and Pesticides (for 8 years @ 6,000/-)||4,800/-|
|7.||Drip Irrigation Installation||85,000/-|
|8.||Irrigation charges (8 years @ 4,000/-)||32,000/-|
|10.||Security charges (15 years @ 25,000/-)||3,75,000/-|
- Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Income on Sandalwood Farming:
|S.No||Particulars||Cost (Rs. /Acre)|
|1.||Heartwood (420 trees x 5.8 kg/tree @ 7,500/- per kg)||1,82,70,000/-|
|2.||Sapwood (420 trees x 35 kg/tree @ 1,100/- per kg)||1,61,70,000/-|
- Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Profit on Sandalwood Farming:
|S.No||Particulars||Cost (Rs. /Acre)|
Choosing best sandalwood seeds for germination produces good quality sandalwood plants than procuring grafted plants. Indian sandalwood variety is recommended along with Australian Sandalwood for sandalwood farming in a one-acre farmland and it may require about 400 to 450 trees @ 3.0 x 6.0-meter spacing. The average heartwood harvest may go up to 10 kg per tree giving up to 42 tonnes per acre under best farming practices with good soil and climatic conditions. The market rate / retail rate would be anywhere between 7,500/- to 10,000/- per kilogram. A farmer can choose to grow intercrops or mango trees for extra income. This extra income can be used for maintaining of the sandalwood farm as harvesting can be started after 8 to 10 years. Taking all these figures into consideration and deducting government charges on inspection fee, tree selling, and other fees along with timely investment, a farmer can make a huge profit.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Marketing of Sandalwood
Sandalwood market pricing is increasing each year on an average about 20 to 25% due to its high global market demand and supply shortage. Sandalwood products are consumed globally for its raw wood, extracted oil and its other by-products. Sandalwood is used in many industries such as traditional medicines, perfumes, woodworking, soap, and in pharmaceuticals. Nothing goes wasted and also the waste chippings get sells in the market. One can sell sandalwood in retail and global market directly by getting due permissions and export licenses from the government.
Sandalwood Farming Project Report – Tips for Growing Sandalwood
- Soak the seeds for 24 hours and dry them in the shade before planting for early germination.
- Plant the seedlings in a big container and place it indoors if you live in cold climate regions.
- Sandalwood needs well-drained soils with 6.0 to 7.0 pH value.
- Flowering happens once in a year or twice in a year. Pruning if left unchecked, they grow fast and reach 40 feet in a few years.
- Harvest Sandalwood pods when they are immature and tender, about half an inch in diameter.
- For fresh greens, harvest young seedlings, growing tips, and young leaves.
- For dried leaf powder, harvest older leaves.
- For seed oil extraction, leave the pods for ripening on the tree until they dry out and turn brown.