Sericulture Project Report
Let us discuss Sericulture Project Report, Cost, Profit, Economics or silkworm project report
Sericulture is a method in which the silk is reared from the silkworm cocoon. This process is also called silk reeling. Sericulture combines agriculture and also industry. The silkworms are being cultivated in this process. There are many species of silkworms, which are used for commercial purpose, but the caterpillar of the silkworm, which is domesticated (also called as Bombyx Mori) is the silkworm which is widely in use.
Advantages of Sericulture:
- Sericulture is the only industry that gives a large number of job opportunities. So, the process of Sericulture is considered a tool for the economic reconstruction of rural areas.
- The farmers would get back a gross value of approximately 55%. The sericulture farmers are categorized into several sections like reelers, weavers, cocoon growers, traders. Hence, most of the income which is generated from the sericulture will be going back to the villages.
- The investment to start sericulture would be up to 14,000 excluding the land and rearing places cost. This estimation is for the cultivation of both mulberry and rearing of the silkworm in an acre of land which is irrigated. The income generated with these values would be approximately Rs. 28,000/- per year.
- For growing and to start the rearing of the silkworm, mulberry takes half a year and once the plantation is done, mulberry would be able to support at least five to six crops in a year, that too in tropical climatic conditions. So, if the management is good, this rearing can be up to 15 years.
- There are various sections involved in sericulture which includes management of the mulberry garden, harvesting of leaves, rearing the silkworms, weaving which can be done by women. Approximately 58% of the employees in sericulture are women.
- The farmers which have fewer lands can also start sericulture. If the silkworm is reared in approximately 3/4th of the land, then it would support three members in the family and for rearing, there is no requirement to hire someone.
Starting a Silkworm farm:
Starting a silkworm farm is a very important part of sericulture. There should be great care and proper management. Based on the number of broods, they are categorized as below:
- Single brood per annum: Univoltine.
- Two broods per annum: Bivoltine.
- More than two broods per annum: Multivoltine.
The silkworm is very suitable in tropical climates because the mulberry plant will go well in the regions which have tropical climatic conditions and give a good yield all around the year.
Silkworm Rearing Types:
Depending on the age of the silkworm, the silkworm rearings are classified into two types. The life cycle of a silkworm will have to go through five instars. It is your choice to choose until which stage you want to rear your silkworm.
- Chawki Rearing: If the rearing of the silkworm is done till the third instar stage, then that kind of rearing is called chawki rearing or young age worm rearing. This stage is more prone to diseases which is why proper care has to be taken at this stage.
- Late Age Worm Rearing: If the rearing of the silkworm is done from the third instar stage to the fifth instar stage, then that kind of rearing is called late age worm rearing.
Brushing and Incubation:
The environmental conditions should be proper while rearing the silkworm and proper care has to be taken. The temperature should be between 24 – 27 degrees Celsius with relative humidity between 84% to 85%.
By following the above environmental conditions, the hatching would take place in a uniform way with two weeks from the day the eggs were first laid.
The egg will be brushed to the rearing bed as soon as the larva comes out it. Then the leaves should be cut to a size of 1 cm each and should be spread on the bed. The leaves which are under the one which has come out lately can be used as a feed. One should make sure that the rearing bed is always clean.
Read this: Silkworm Sericulture Subsidy, Loan.
Moulting is nothing but the shedding of the skin, which is old, and the formation of the new skin. During this stage, the temperature conditions should be between 23 – 25 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity should be between 64% to 70%. When the silkworm gets through the second instar, it goes through the stage of moulting. The third instar is the stage which is the most critical one and it occurs between young age worm rearing and late age worm rearing.
Late age worm rearing:
This stage starts after the third instar. In this stage, the worms feed on more leaves. Before this stage gets started, the rearing room should be made clean along with the equipment. The equipment should be cleaned in such a way that it gets rid of all the disinfectants. The leaves which are harvested should have less moisture content and the carbohydrate content of the fibers should also be less. In this late age stage, it should have the environmental conditions which are controlled and you can have a look at those below.
- The temperature here should be maintained at 25 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity should be between 69% to 75%.
- The amount of space which is required for 100 eggs, which are disease-free is 180 square feet.
- The space required for the rearing in the fourth and the fifth instars will be 400 square feet
- The amount of space required for 100 disease-free eggs is around 220 square feet.
- The space required for the rearing in the fourth instar and the fifth instar is around 500 square feet.
- The larvae should not be disturbed after the fourth moult is done. For the moulting of worms, the optimum density should be 50 worms per square foot. At the time of moulting, the larvae should not be exposed to sunlight or humidity. It is during this stage that the larvae start to develop cocoon and after a week, the cocoon would be formed.
From 100 disease-free eggs, there would be a yield of 45 kgs with chowki rearing and a yield of 50 kg with late age worm rearing. The yield should be having a shape and size, which is uniform and the content of silk should have a good weight of the shell. To complete this process, it takes a month.
This process usually starts with the selection of the cocoon, the next step would be cooking and the final step would be silk reeling.
Coming to the selection of cocoon, to reel the silk, this step is very much important. A cocoon that is good will give a very good yield of silk fiber. The cocoon which you opt for should have the below features:
- The size and shape of the cocoon should be uniform.
- The cocoon should not be urinated.
- It should have proper mounting and it should be pierced.
- The weight of the shell should be more.
After selecting the cocoon, you need to steam it so that the insect which is present inside it will die without causing any sort of damage to the cocoon. The insect should be killed when it is inside the cocoon because if it comes out, there would be a discontinuity in the silk fiber and you will not be able to reel the fiber which is lengthy. After this, by using hot water, soak the cocoon. The temperature of the water, which is used for soaking should be between 93 to 95 degrees Celsius. The soaking is done so that the gum, which holds the fiber will be loosened so that the reeling would be easy. Then the entangling filament should be taken off and the silk can be reeled.
The costs required for the cultivation of sericulture in India:
The area required for the cultivation of mulberry – 2 acres
The size of the silkworm rearing shed – 60’ x 20’ (Feet)
The size of the silkworm rearing shed is 1200 square feet and the cost of construction is Rs. 1,30,000. This cost is due to the specifications of the shed with coconut fronds for the top. The shed also contains one door which is 6’ to 4’ and 13 number windows with 6’ to 3’. It also has cement flooring and hence the cost would be Rs.1,30,000/-.
The cost required for the cultivation of mulberry:
|Farmyard manure (FMY) 20 tonnes ( Rs.470 /tonne)||9,400|
|Ridges and Furrows||1,500|
|10,000 Mulberry cuttings/seedling( Rs.1/- each)||10,000|
|Labor charges for transplantation||1,200|
|Cost of fertilizers||2,000|
|Cost of foliar spray for nutrients||700|
|Cost for Irrigation purpose||1000|
Cost of materials for Silkworm rearing:
|Shoot harvesting 1200 sq.ft. (1 sq.ft. = Rs.8/-)||9,600|
|300 Chandrike(Rs. 50/- chandrike)||15,000|
|100 meters of Bed cleaning nets (Rs. 3 Per/mt)||300|
Costs of rearing of silkworm:
|Cost of eggs for 2000 dfls @ Rs. 5/dfls||10,000|
|Spraying for 10 mulberry crops(Rs. 550/- each)||5,500|
|Chemical fertilizers for 10 crops||5,500|
|10 Weeding (Rs.600/- per weeding)||6,000|
|Cost of pesticides and foliar nutrients||3,000|
|Transport charges to the market for the sale of a cocoon||3000|
Returns In Sericulture:
|Return on Cocoon harvested per annum ( 80 kg cocoon /100 DFLs), total 1400kg and each kg costs Rs.140||1,96,000|
Profit calculation in Sericulture:
- The income of Sericulture farming should be done on a yearly basis.
- The Cost of Cocoon is around Rs.120 to Rs.150 per Kg.
- Each DFL of silkworm gives 0.8 to 1 kg of a cocoon. So, we get 80 kg from 100 DFL’s.
- In a year we get 2,000 DFLs from a Silkworm shed of 1200 sq. ft.
- As the cost of DFLs is taken as Rs.140 per Kg cocoon.
- Then, we can earn 2,80,000 (Two lakhs approx.) from 2,000 DFLs.
- If we subtract the annual expenditures around Rs. 70,000/-, the marginal Sericulture Income is 2 lakhs approximately.
In case if you are interested in this: Quail Farming Business Plan.
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