Sheep Farming Project Report, Cost and Profits for Native Breeds:
Introduction To Sheep Farming:
The sheep was originated in the mountains of Iran, Turkestan, and Baluchistan. Mainland china tops the production of sheep followed by Australia. What is sheep farming? Well, it is nothing but raising and breeding of sheep. Sheep farming is one of the lucrative commercial businesses in India as well as other parts of the world. One can obtain decent profits in sheep farming business under ideal conditions. With basic knowledge of sheep farming and sheep farming business plan make you to be successful in the sheep farming project. Sheep can be raised for meat (lamb and mutton), milk, and wool. Sheep manure is also having an excellent demand for growing agricultural crops. Who can start the sheep farming business? Well, anybody who is unemployed or having marginal lands or looking for part time or who wants to set up on a commercial scale. You must be aware of local sheep raising conditions before setting up a sheep farm. Sheep are more prone to seasonal as well as sudden diseases than goats. There are many sheep breeds available to select from. However, some breeds are more suitable for your region than others. Some sheep are suitable for meat and some are for wool.
Sheep can be raised in temperate climatic conditions, arid zones. Sheep farm needs a secured housing, secured fences, water, feed, transport and pest and disease control. There are many sheep training programs state wide in India to gain information about raising and breeding of sheep. The animal husbandry department is also your point of contact for knowing sheep breeds and other related information. The following sheep article provides the rough project report for sheep farming with local breeds/native breeds.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Sheep Raising/Rearing Systems:
- Zero grazing: In this system, sheep are confined to the sheep shed.
- Semi-Intensive: In this system, sheep will spend half the day in open fields and remaining half day in the sheep shed.
- External grazing: In this system of raising, sheep is left for external grazing and they return to the sheep shed only in nights for resting.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Common Sheep Diseases:
- Blue tongue (BT).
- PPR (Peste-des-Petits Ruminants).
- Sheep pox.
- Sheep Anthrax.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Sheep Fodder Crops:
- Hedge Lucerne.
- Fodder maize.
- Fodder sorghum/jowar.
- Hybrid Napier.
- Blue buffalo grass.
- Guinea grass.
- Para Grass.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Indian Native Sheep Breeds:
- Nellore Brown.
- Kashmir Merino.
- Trichy black.
- Chennai red.
- Ramanadhapuram white.
- Rampur Bushair.
Sheep Farming Project Report- Advantages of Sheep Farming:
There are many advantages and benefits of sheep farming.
- Sheep can be raised for multi-purpose (meat, milk, wool, and manure).
- Sheep can be easily adapted to the local environment.
- Sheep do not require much space in the shed.
- Sheep do not destroy trees like goats.
- Sheep farming business provides rural employment.
- Sheep business results in quick returns as they can be sold at the age of 5 to 6 months.
- In the arid regions, where crop productivity is less, they completely depend on raising sheep.
- Sheep meat has excellent demand throughout the world and no marketing skills are required.
- Sheep can be sold at very high prices during festive seasons.
- Sheep are easily adapted to arid and semi-arid regions.
- Apart from eating weeds and other small plants in the field, they turn lots of waste into meat production.
- Sheep manure is an excellent organic matter for growing crops. Hence, many farmers make the sheep to rest in their field for droppings.
- Sheep wool has good demand as well, hence one can earn good money from good quality sheep wool.
- Sheep Production plays major role in the national economy.
- Sheep don’t need expensive feed, they can live on natural vegetation on common grazing lands, uncultivated fields and waste lands.
- Sheep requires less labor (seasonal or permanent) than any other livestock business.
- Sheep can survive in prolonged drought conditions.
- Strong herd instincts of sheep make them excellent ranch livestock.
- Sheep flocks can easily manage even by older people.
- Sheep are not threat to any other animals in the farm.
- Sheep eat grains or crop lost during its harvest since they have excellent structure of the lips.
- To start a sheep farm, there is no need of building expensive shelters.
- Investment and set up efforts is less in case of commercial sheep farming.
- The feed cost is less in sheep farming as they can survive on natural green pastures.
- Sheep breeding can result in an increase of herd on the farm in a short period of time.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Tips for Sheep Farming:
- Start with minimal number of sheep until you are comfortable with sheep management.
- Select health sheep breeds suitable to your local climatic conditions.
- In case of breeding, male sheep should have well built structure.
- Make sure to have a veterinary doctor when you are purchasing sheep.
- Bargaining of sheep price at the time of purchase is very important as itself saves you a lot of money.
- You should plan a sheep farming business like one batch should be ready for sale where other new sheep batch will be entering into the farm. In fact, you can plan for 3 cycles in a year. Make sure your sheep batch is ready just before Bakrid festival to make two fold profits.
- Don’t mix old sheep on the farm with a newly purchased herd.
- Get some sheep farming training before starting a commercial sheep business.
- All required sheep vaccinations should be carried out throughout their lifecycle.
- If you observe any abnormalities of sheep, isolate that sheep from the group until it gets treated.
- Make sure you maintain the proper feed ration.
- Make sure to clean the shed frequently and maintain dry floor.
- Old and unproductive sheep should be sold to slaughterhouses.
- You can prepare sheep silage from green fodder crops, if you have enough farming land. This can reduce feed cost and useful in drought conditions.
- Prepare sheep farming business plan which includes from the selection of sheep breeds to marketing of sheep.
- Decide whether you want to start ram program or breeding program. The Ram program involves of raising only male sheep and sell them off.
- Watch any sheep farming videos on YouTube for better understanding of sheep basics.
- Fence the sheep farm area to prevent the access to any predators like wild dogs.
- Build the sheep shed on an elevated place where there is no scope of rain water entry into the shed.
- Never allow sheep to drink water in the fields or from external sources and provide fresh water drinkers in the shed or in open areas.
- Disinfect the sheep shed once in a while to prevent spread of any diseases.
- Sheep should be monitored for their abnormal behavior and medical treatment should be provided accordingly.
- Any nutrient and supplemental feed should be provided for quick and healthy growth of sheep.
- Sheep wool should be cut as per your veterinary doctor’s advice.
- Remove any poisonous plants from the field.
- In hot summers, you may need to provide coolers and in extreme winters, they may need heaters.
- Deworming of sheep should be carried out frequently along with regular vaccinations.
- Maintain a record for all the animals on the farm.
- Provide a weigh scale for recording an average weight gain of the sheep.
- Grow green fodder crops by utilizing sheep manure collected from the shed.
- Build the sheep shed in east-west direction for proper ventilation and airflow.
- Insure all the sheep on the farm as it covers from unpredictable losses or mortality.
Economics of Sheep Farming/Sheep Farming Project Report/Cost and Profits of Sheep Farming
Sheep Farming Project Report- Sheep Project Assumptions:
Size of the Sheep Farm: 100 female sheep breeders (Ewes) plus 4 male breeders (Rams).
Sheep Rearing system: Intensive / Zero grazing.
Sheep Breeds Assumed: All native/local sheep breeds.
Sheep Shed area: 1400 square feet.
Sheep Exercise paddock: 3500 square feet.
Sheep feeders and drinkers: Ready-made feeders and drinkers.
Green fodder crops:
- Maize/corn crop: 3 crops/1 acre/year
- Lucerne crop: 1st cut after 45 days. Later on, every 25 days.
Silo construction: Below or above ground.
Labor for managing sheep herd: 1 labourer for 100 sheep.
Sheep insurance cost: Prevailing norms in the customer area.
Silo sizes: Case to case design is tailor made.
Sheep growth rate: 5 kg/month (in-house).
Sheep veterinary management: Rs.60/sheep.
Sheep feeding system: Stall fed.
Sheep manure output: 0.3 tons/adult sheep/year.
Sheep breeder cycle duration: 240 days.
Sheep fattening cycle duration: 180 days – 60 days on milk plus 120 days on feed.
Sheep terminology used:
- Lamb: Young sheep.
- Ram: An adult male sheep.
- Ewe: An adult female sheep.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Techno parameters:
Maize silage requirement:
- 600 kg’s/One Breeder/One Breeding cycle.
- 240 kg’s/Lamb/One Fattening cycle.
- 120 kg’s/One Breeder/One Breeding cycle.
- 60 kg’s/One Lamb/One Lamb Fattening cycle.
Lambing rate: 1.2 lambs/Ewe
Mortality rate: Mortality % = 10% (in newborn lambs)
Sheep Manure: 0.25 tons /adult sheep/year
Sale price of lamb: @ Rs.200/kg live weight.
Mineral Feed Supplements:
- 9kg /One Breeder/One Breeding cycle.
- 6kg /One Lamb/One Lamb Fattening cycle.
Breeding cycle: Once in every 240 days.
Lamb fattening cycle: 180 days
- On mother’s milk: 60 days.
- On feed: 120 days.
Purchase cost of breeders: Rs.150/1 kg live weight.
- Cost of maize silage – in house production: @ Rs.1200/ton.
- Cost of Lucerne: Cut and carry method: Rs.1000/ton.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Capital Cost of Sheep Farming:
Cost of construction of 1400 sq. ft sheds at the rate of Rs.200 per sq.ft = Rs.2, 80,000 (Note, this area and cost depends on material used).
Cost of 1400 sq. ft chain link mesh at the rate of Rs.20/sq.ft = Rs.28, 000.
Cost of feeders, drinkers other equipment at the rate of Rs.500/sheep for a total of 104 sheep = Rs.52, 000.
Cost of 5 silos at the rate of Rs.10, 000/1 silo = 5 x 10,000 = Rs.50, 000.
Cost of procuring (4th month pregnant) 100 female sheep (Ewes of 4th month pregnant) + 4 male sheep (Rams) = Rs. 5,92,800.
Insurance Cost for at the rate of 4.05% of total cost of sheep = Rs. 24,000.
Store room/Feed room cost = Rs. 26,000.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Total Expenditure of Sheep Farming = Rs. 10,52,800.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Recurring Cost of Sheep Farming:
Cost of Maize silage + Lucerne fresh grass + Cost of Labor + Mineral Feed supplements + Veterinary/medical care = Rs. 3,00,000.
Sheep Farming Project Report -Total Income in Sheep Farming:
Sale of 108 lambs 30 kg’s at the rate of Rs.200/kg live weight = Rs. 6,48,000 (Note: live weight price may vary from region to region.)
By insurance claims of 4 ewes at the rate of Rs.2500 = Rs.10, 000.
Sheep manure sale of 35 tons at the rate of 1500/ton = Rs. 52,500.
Total Income = Rs. 7,10,500.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Net Profit in Sheep Farming:
Total Gross Income = Rs.7, 10,500.
Total Expenditure = Rs.3, 00,000.
Net Profit = Total Gross Income – Total Expenditure = Rs. 4,10,000.
Sheep Farming Project Report – Conclusion of Sheep Farming Business:
Sheep farming is very much profitable business as the meat consumption is skyrocketing. You need dedication with proper sheep farming business plan. Most of the time, rainy season causes unexpected diseases and death of the sheep. If proper disease prevention measures are taken and good feed is provided, it will be 100% successful business. However, people lost lot money in this business because they are unable to dedicate the time to take care sheep farm.