Starting a Goat Farming Business:
The following article is all about “Goat Farming Business” or “How to Raise Goats”.
Goat is commonly known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important occupation in the dry land farming system. Suitable for small and marginal and landless laborers. It needs less grazing lands and the initial investment is low. The risk of goat farming is less compared to other livestock species. It is an economically viable sector for the rural people. They are resistant to diseases. In a short period, we can get more revenue.
First, let us talk about the advantages of Goat farming:
- Starting a goat farming business requires low initial investment or capital.
- Goats don’t require a huge area for housing because their body size is comparatively smaller than other livestock animals.
- Usually, goats are very friendly in nature and very lovable.
- Goats are good breeders and they reach sexual maturity within their 7-12 months of age and give birth to kids within a short time. And some goat breed produces numerous kids per kidding.
- Risks are less for goat farming (even in drought-prone areas) than any other livestock farming business.
- Both male and female goats have almost equal value/price in the market.
- No religious taboo against goat farming and meat consumption.
- Goat meat and milk are cholesterol free and easily digestible.
- Goat milk is used for making various types of foods and it’s very easy to digest than milk of cows.
- Commercial goat farming business has created a potential way of employment for unemployed people.
- Goats are multipurpose animals. They can produce milk, meat, skin, fiber, and manure at the same time.
- There is no need for a high-end housing system for goats. Even they can easily share their living place with their owners or his/her other livestock animals.
- Goats are very suitable for mixed farming with other domestic animals.
- Diseases are less in goats than other domestic animals.
- Goats are easily available, comparatively cheaper in price, easy to maintain and always have a friendly disposition.
- They are capable of adapting themselves with almost all types of agroclimatic environments or conditions. They can tolerate high and low temperature throughout the world and live happily. They also can tolerate hot climate more than other animals.
- According to the investment per unit, they produce more than other domestic animals. And the ROI (return of investment) ratio is very good.
- Goats are generally smaller in size but reach slaughter age faster.
- Goats are called the “foster mother of human”. Because their milk is considered as the best milk for human consumption than any other species of livestock animal’s milk. And their milk is low cost, nutritious, wholesome and easily digestible. All aged people from child to old one can easily digest goat’s milk. Goat milk also has lesser allergic problems. And used as an Ayurvedic medicine for the people who are ailing with diabetes, asthma, cough, etc.
- Goat milk is suitable for preparing various types of milk products. And goat meat has a huge demand and high price in the local and international markets. Even you can consider exporting your products to foreign countries for more profits.
- Goats can be milked as often as required. This also prevents refrigeration costs and milk storage problems.
- You can use the goat’s manure as a high-quality natural fertilizer in the crop field. This will directly help to maximize crop production.
- As goat farming business is very profitable, so many govt. and non-govt. banks are providing loans for starting this business.
- This business requires less labor and you can easily use your family labor for raising goats.
- Commercial goat farming business is a great source of employment and income. So unemployed educated people can easily create great employment and income source through raising goats commercially.
- Along with the above advantages, there are also many advantages of raising goats commercially.
Goat Breed types in India:
Sirohi, Jamnapari, Surti, Tellicherry, Beetal, Malabari, Barbari, Black Bengal, Osmanabadi, and Boer. These are the popular breeds in India.
For a profitable goat farming, there should be 3 kidding for 2 years.
Goats with a faster growth rate and larger size should be used for breeding.
- Does of one year of age should be used for breeding
- Does should be bred after 3 months of kidding then only there will be 3 kidding for 2 years.
Goat Shed/Housing Construction:
It can be raised either intensive or semi-intensive methods. In the intensive method, goats can be raised in sheds or raised platforms with deep bedding materials. No grazing for goats in this method. In a semi-intensive method, they can be grown in ordinary sheds with light litter materials. They can go for the grazing lands also. A small shed with good cross ventilation is enough to keep a small herd. Litter height should be around 6cms. Litter material may be paddy straw, husk, groundnut shell. It should be changed every 6 months interval. Periodically we have to turn the bedding materials for avoiding bad odor. Care should be taken for reducing parasitical infections. Each goat requires around 15 sq.ft area. If we use a raised platform system means, we can reduce the infection level. Around the shed should be wooden plates or wire meshed.
Goat Feeding/Grazing habits:
Goats consume wide varieties of feeds and vegetation than either sheep or cattle. Goats are fond of leguminous fodders. They do not take fodders like sorghum and maize silage or straw. They like to eat hay prepared from forest grasses, if cut in early stages, but very much fond with hay prepared from leguminous crops. They also need grains like wheat, maize corns, and some pulses. Apart from they need high mineral compositions. So we can prepare the mineral mixture in the following propositions.
The composition of Mineral Mixture Added at a 2% for Goats
|a.||Sterilized bone meal||35 Parts|
|b.||Finely ground high-grade limestone||45 Parts|
|c.||Iodized salt||20 Parts|
|d.||Copper sulphate||22 gms/ton mineral mixture|
|e.||Zinc Oxide||11 gms/ton ”|
|f||Ferrous Carbonate||11 gms/ton ”|
Feeding protein-rich green fodder such as acacia, Lucerne, and cassava and are important sources of dietary nitrogen. Farmers can cultivate agathi, subabul(subabool) and glaricidia trees along the border of the farm and used as green fodder. Oil cakes are a good supplement for goats. One acre of fodder is enough to feed 35 goats.
Seasonal fodder: Fodder sorghum, Maize, and Cumbu.
Perennial fodder: Co1, Napier Hybrid, Guinea grass, Para grass, and Kolukattai grass.
Fodder legumes: Stylo, hedge Lucerne, and Fodder groundnut.
Tree fodders: Subabul(Subabool), Agathi, etc.
| Subabul(Leucaena leucocephala).|
De-worming and vaccinations of Goats:
They need to be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and tetanus regularly. The animals need to be dewormed at least twice a year to keep in good health. Before breeding the goat should be dewormed. Kids should be dewormed every month interval.
Returns on Goat Farming:
It is an economical and viable enterprise for farmers. Capital Investment of purchase of Goats is very low. For a price of 1 cross-bred Cow, one can purchase 10 quality goats. Goats & their kids can be sold and cashed anytime. Goat has a shorter Gestation period(150 days). Their population in the country is continuously increasing, though 60% of the goats are slaughtered every year. Products available from Goats are mutton, milk, manure, skin and fine hair.
Total life of Goats = 15 years. Productive — 7 years. Pregnancy Period =150 days. Manure available from 1 adult goat in 24 hours is 1 kg
Indian meat is preferred in the world. The rich goat manure is ideal for fertilizing fishponds and all other crops. It is also a good base material for vermicomposting.
Loans for Goat Farming in India:
NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) is arranging loans for goat growers on a large scale. The loans will be repaid in suitable half yearly/annual installments usually within a period of about 5-6 years with a grace period of one year. The minimum down payment collected from small farmers is only 5% of the total investment. Marginal and large farmers 10, 15% respectively.
If you follow some basics of goat farming, it would be beneficial for returns on your investment.
Sheep or Goat Farming Information: Read Here.