Tilapia Fish Farming Guide:
Introduction of Tilapia Fish Farming: – Tilapia fish is the second most farmed fish in the world and the commercial farming of Tilapia fish is limited in India. Even though this fish was introduced in India long back (in 1952), and there was a ban imposed on tilapia in 1959 by the fisheries research committee of India. Recently, Tilapia fish farming was approved with certain conditions in some states. Genetically improved tilapia (GIFT) fish farming was approved with some guidelines. Before starting commercial tilapia fish farming, contact aquaculture/fisheries department for guidelines and necessary licenses.
In this article let us discuss about commercial monosex (especially male tilapia fish) tilapia fish cultivation.
Advantages of Monosex Tilapia Fish Farming:- Monosex tilapia fish has its own advantages over other fish such as high degree of disease resistance, survival rate in adverse weather conditions and ability of consuming natural pond feed. Because of these facts, commercial farming of tilapia fish increasing day by day.
Optimal Temperature for Tilapia Fish Farming:- In tilapia fish farming, the optimum temperature for best growth is 15°C to 35°C. However tilapia fish can survive in 10 °C to 40 °C.
What is Monosex Tilapia Fish Farming?:- The biggest challenge in tilapia fish farming is different aged and sized tilapia fish in the same pond due to their unconditioned propagation. As male tilapia fish grows faster and gains good weight compared to female tilapia, one should consider raising male tilapia fish by separating females which is known as “monosex tilapia fish farming”.
Tilapia Fish Farming Demand and Profits:- As the male tilapia fish is well adopted to supplementary feeding and due to its rapid growth, there is a huge profit in commercial tilapia fish farming. This fish has a very high demand in local as well as international markets.
Tilapia Fish Farming Methods:- Basically, monosex tilapia fish is raised in nursery ponds as well as stocking ponds in two steps.
Pond Selection in Nursery Raising: While selecting the nursery pond, the following points should be considered.
- Make sure the pond to have sufficient sunlight.
- Make sure the pond to be free from flooding.
- Make sure the pond is free from harmful weeds.
Generally, in monosex tilapia fish nursing, a pond with 2 to 4 ft depth is considered as ideal for fish cultivation.
Nursing Pond Management in Tilapia Fish Farming:-
- Should empty the pond by removing all water and make it to dry. In case, if it is not possible to dry the pond, can use chemicals for eradicating cannibalistic & unwanted fishes from the pond.
- Apply 600 kg of dung, 15 kg of urea,100 kg of lime, 7 kg of TSP and 2 kg of MOP per acre pond area.
- Make sure to close or prevent the entrance for snakes, frogs and other wild predators. This can be done by arranging the fence with net surroundings the pond area.
- After a week of applying pond fertilizers, 3 to 4 weeks aged monosex tilapia should be stocked in the pond. Generally, 1 lakh to 2 lakh monosex tilapia fish per 1 acre of pond can be accommodated.
- Supplement the pond with high protein feed @15 % of the body weight of the total stocked tilapia fish in the pond. For example, if there is a stock of 100 kg of fish in the pond, they need about 15 kg of feed daily. It is not recommended to feed them at once rather feeding 2 to 3 times in a day is preferred. Raise the fish in this system for 2 months period or when each fish weighs about 30 grams and transfer them to main stocking pond.
Stocking Pond Management in Tilapia Fish Farming:-
- Now the time to manage the fish (2 months old or 30 grams of weight) that have been raised and transferred from nursery pond.
- Make the stocking pond depth just like nursery pond or little deeper.
- Should remove all types of cannibalistic & unwanted species from the pond and make it to dry. Chemicals also can be used to remove the unwanted stuff in the pond.
- To grow natural fish feed, apply 600 kg of dung, 12 kg of urea, 100 kg of lime, 2 kg of MOP and 6 kg of TSP per 1 acre pond area. Usually, natural feed start growing after a week of fertilizer application. This the time you should stock the nursery raised fish (2 months old with 30grams weight) in the stocking pond. Normally, 20 thousand to 25 thousand fishes can be accommodated in 1acre stocking pond area.
- To constantly maintain the natural pond fish feed, apply 500 kg of dung, 3 to 4 kg of urea and 2 kg of TSP for every 7 days. If you are using supplementary fish feed, stop applying the fertilizers in the pond.
- Should change the water daily @ 5 % to 6 % when the fish gains the weight of 100 to 110 grams.
- Monosex tilapia attains 200 grams to 250 grams body weight within 3 to 4 months period after stocking in the pond. At this point, you can start selling the fish. However, to get the higher price, should have to wait until they reach 400-500 grams body weight.
Feed Rate in Commercial Monosex Tilapia Fish Farming:- Providing nutritious food in commercial tilapia fish production is very important for quick growth and higher body weight of the fish. The following table briefs the average daily feed requirement.
|Body Weight (Grams)||Daily Feed Rate||No.Of.Times a Day|
|20 to 25||8 to 10%||3 to 4|
|50 to 100||6 to 8%||3 to 4|
|100 to 200||5 to 6%||3|
|200 plus||2 to 4%||3|
Bottom Line:- Monosex tilapia fish farming business is increasing rapidly day by day because it’s very profitable. If you are planning to go for tilapia fish farming on large scale, there are subsidies available for commercial farming. Contact your local aquaculture or fisheries department for more information.
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