Tamarind is a leguminous and hardwood tree that bears edible fruit. It is scientifically called Tamarindus indica. Crop yield varies by soil type, climate, propagation method, and management methods. Tamarind fruits are legumes. The Tamarind tree is grown as a commercial crop in warmer climates and increased because of its value as a large shade tree. Let’s check out the top 15 steps to boost Tamarind fruit yield below.
Top 15 steps to boost Tamarind fruit yield
Step 1: Soil preparation for Tamarind growth
It can grow on various soils, but deep loamy or alluvial soils provide the best conditions for its long roots to grow. Tamarind prefers deep loamy soil. It grows in neutral, clayey, loamy, and even saline soils. The soil should be well-drained. You do not need to care about soil pH to grow Tamarind.
Step 2: Select high yielding varieties of Tamarind
There are very few known varieties of Tamarind. Recently, however, some seed selection has been identified based on the quality and yield of the fruit. Goma
- Prateek is a high-yielding variety of Tamarind, which has better quality than other local varieties. There are some better varieties of Tamarind.
- PKM-1 – It is an early variety with 263 kg per tree. The pods are produced with a pulp content of 39%. If transplanted at a distance of 10 meters x 10 meters, it can have 26 tons of pods per hectare. The stems are dark brown; the fruits are produced in clusters of 4-5 pieces; they are slightly curved with brown pulp.
- Urigam – This is another local variety in which very long pods have a sweet pulp. It has 2-3 pods per bunch. Fruit production is less than PKM-1.
- Pratisthan – This is a high-yielding variety of Tamarind with sweet, refined pulp.
- NTI-19 (DST-1) – This is a type of good yield Tamarind. The average yield per plant in the 5th year is about 3 kg.
- Red Tamarind –The pulp is red and is in great demand in Arab countries.
- GKVK-6 and GKVK-33 are other varieties.
Step 3: Location for best fruit growth
Tamarind eventually becomes a large tree, so keep this in mind when planting. The tree usually forms a beautiful spreading crown that provides light shade. The tree adapts well to semi-arid tropical areas with alternate wet and dry seasons but can be grown in areas with high rainfall if drainage is provided. It needs good rain, with an average of 500-1500 mm during its growth, flowering, and fruiting periods, June-October.
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The fruit needs a dry season from January to March for ripening and ripening. It is grown in areas where temperatures reach a maximum of 46°C and a minimum of 0°C. It can withstand drought but is also sensitive to cold. The best altitude for Tamarind cultivation is 1000 meters above sea level. After the fruits are harvested, the plants shed their leaves, and in a short time before flowering in March, they enter the dormancy.
Step 4: Light requirement for increasing crop growth
Full sun is best even after hard pruning of roots and branches. The tree will respond quickly. Dry weather is essential during fruit development.
Step 5: Propagation method for Tamarind fruit development
Tamarind is propagated by seed, grafting, cutting, and air layering. The seeds remain viable for many months. Tamarind needs dry weather to thrive and has strong drought resistance – it is ideal for semi-arid areas (but it may need some irrigation). If preserved at a young age, it will recover from the cold; the cold tolerance increases with age. Tropical conditions are preferred. It prefers to grow independently because it is not very compatible with other trees.
Tamarind is propagated by seeds, cuttings, grafts, and buddings. Tamarind seeds are sown in rows at a distance of about 20-25 cm, and they grow in a week. Seedlings should be irrigated periodically if necessary. Plants about 3-6 months old are transplanted in the main field. But 12-15 months old plants with a height of about 75-100 cm are preferred. Plants can also be grown in polythene bags. But the right kind of plants cannot be produced by seed propagation. Seedling trees are highly random in bearing and have an alternative effect.
Their production is also low, and their pre-bearing period is long. Therefore, the right plants are obtained by grafting (approach or softwood grafting) and budding (patch budding). Softwood grafting is done using 6–12-month-old rootstocks. The propagation method is usually by seed. However, due to the presence of heterozygotes, it does not become the correct breed for typing through seeds. The prolonged juvenile phase is also due to seed germination.
Seedlings tree about 15-20 years for economic production. Vegetatively propagated plants begin to produce after 3-4 years. Vegetative methods like approach grafting, air layering, and budding have been successful. However, the layers are suitable for planting in dry soil conditions because of the lack of a deep growing tap root system. To get the right plants for Tamarind orchards, use uniformly growing and yielding plants such as budding and grafting.
Step 6: Tamarind tree planting position
Tamarind prefers subtropical and subtropical, dry and windy climates. It can adapt to warm temperate climates, but it will not be very effective. The Tamarind tree needs clear skies and dry days for flowering, fruit arrangement, and growth.
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Step 7: Flower drop causes and control
Tamarind has heavy flowers, but it will be the best yield if you plant 15-30% flower set fruit because these plants support all the flowers. But if the fruit set is less than 30%, you have other factors involved in the flower drop.
- Heavy irrigation and soil moisture after a long dry spell.
- Nitrogen high and less boron
- Variation in Night and Day temperature
Step 8: Intercultural improves crop growth
Intercultural operations such as weeding and hoeing should be done regularly. Crops like cowpea, horse gram, etc., can be grown in the rainy season to control weeds, prevent soil erosion and improve soil health. Intercrops such as Drumsticks or low-growing vegetables can be grown in the first 4-5 years to get early returns.
Step 9: Irrigation for tree growing faster and better
Tamarind is a dry land (rain-fed) crop that is not generally irrigated. But young gardens need to be irrigated, especially during the dry season and summer months. One-year-old plants should be given 10 liters of water at intervals of 6-8 days in summer, which may double in the second and third years. After irrigation, there may not be necessary. However, if it is provided, the growth will be faster and better.
Like most young trees need watering, you will need to water the Tamarind more until its roots are established; this is when mature trees begin to tolerate more drought. The two main variables affect when you need to water a Tamarind tree and how much it is the time of year and soil type. For example, Tamarind trees need more water during hot weather, wind conditions, and low humidity. And clay soils retain water longer than sandy soils. A young Tamarind tree can benefit from a water basin around its trunk.
To make a basin of water, make the soil several inches high so that a berm forms around the ball of the tree root. Several days after watering the young tree, dig into the soil to a depth of 12 inches to check the moisture around the roots. If the soil is dry, it is time to water it again; If it is still moist, recheck it in a day or two. Repeat this process a few times until you realize how many times you have to water your tree. Once your Tamarind tree has matured, you may need to water it only once or twice a month if the rains do not provide enough moisture.
Step 10: Tree care for getting more yield
Irrigation should be done regularly for the first two years whenever there is no rain till the plants are established. In the early stages, the field is kept free from weeds. Side shoots are removed from seeds for the first two years, and suckers from bud / grafted plants. During the first 5-8 years of the monsoon, the soil is plowed and cut between plant rows and for two years in the case of weeds.
Basins should be prepared around each plant. Interspace plowing is done 2-3 times a year whenever no covering crop is grown. It not only helps in checking the weeds but also helps in preserving the soil moisture. Tamarind is mostly a rainfed crop, but providing 1-2 irrigations during flowering and fruit set will yield better yields.
Step 11: Nutrition management for better growth
An about one-year-old tree should get 10 kg FYM + 100 grams N + 50 grams P2O5 + 100 grams K2O and the dose should be increased with age. Thus, a 10-year-old tree should get 50 kg FYM + 1 kg N + 500 g P2O5 + 1 kg K2O. If irrigation is available, give an additional 500 gm in the month of September-October. Apply organic fertilizer to Tamarind plants as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Fertilize young trees 6-6-6 (N – P – K) every 2-3 months during the season.
Mature trees do not need fertilizer but can be fertilized occasionally with 8-3-9 fertilizer to promote it. Compost and manure should also be used to reduce the need for fertilizers. Apply acid fertilizer weekly during the growing season and once a month in winter. Add superphosphate to encourage flowering in early spring. Organic fertilizers are preferred. Excess fertilization prevents it from spreading well and causes long internodes. Cut off the high nitrogen fertilizer after new growth.
Tamarind trees bear fruit well with or without the use of fertilizers. Commercially grown Tamarind at 100-200 grams/tree is used for higher yields. The amount of fertilizer can be increased as the trees grow. When the trees begin to bear fruit, additional nutrients can be applied.
Step 12: Plant protection for more yield
There are hardly any pests and diseases in the Tamarind plant. Plants have developed a natural resistance to this disease, and therefore hardly any measures are needed to protect the plants. Dirty insects and scales are often a severe concern in insects, especially in nurseries, and can be controlled with a 0.1% monocrotophos spray. Powdery mildew sometimes affects the leaves and can be controlled with 0.1% Karathane spray.
The Tamarind tree is rarely affected by pests and diseases. Beetles and fungi quickly attack fruits ripened in humid climates, so mature fruits should be cut and stored. The most serious pests of Tamarind are scale insects, mealy-bugs, and seed beetles. Tamarind beans are attacked by the bruchid beetle Caryedon. Diseases reported include leaf spot, powdery mildew, a sooty mold, root and wood rot, stem canker, a bark parasite, and a bacterial leaf spot.
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Step 13: Pruning and training to maintain tree shape and fruit growth
Regularly prune your Tamarind tree to control its growth and maintain its shape. First, remove dead and damaged wood from the tree. Next, young trees are pruned so that three to five well-branched branches can grow in the main structure of the tree. Careful pruning is then required to remove dead or damaged wood.
Branches should be pruned between May and August. Wiring on young branches can be done successfully, and the leaves can be reduced by falling several times during the growing season. Tamarind can cause severe pruning of both branches and roots if done in spring or early summer. New branches will soon sprout from the trunk of the Tamarind tree.
Step 14: Reasons for Tamarind leaves to turn yellow and lose their leaves
Tamarind leaves grow thin and have the unique feature of folding at night. The Tamarind tree is known to be evergreen, but it can shed its leaves short depending on the climate. Plants can rot if waterlogging accumulates in the cold. The leaves turn yellow, and the leaves fall off in insufficient water or very dry air. The slow growth of Tamarind and lack of flowers may be due to a lack of nutrients, light, or cold.
Step 15: Harvesting tips for getting more fruit yield
Tamarind fruits ripen from late spring to early summer. They can be left on the Tamarind tree for up to 6 months after maturation to reduce 20% or less moisture content. Fruits are often cut from the stalk for quick processing. Tamarind can be left on the tree for up to 6 months after maturation to reduce the moisture content to 20% or less. The fruit is often pulled away from the stalk and left with long, longitudinal fibers for quick processing.
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Fruits are often cut from the stalk for quick processing. The tree begins to bear fruit at 13-14 years and continues to produce abundant crops for more than 60 years. Flowers appear in June and July, and beans ripen in cold weather. Let the pods ripen on the tree until the outer shell is dry. Fruits cut with a stalk pulled away from the stalk. The harvested fruit is stored in a clean place.
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