Green Gram, also known as Mung bean, is one of the major pulse crops in India Green Gram is scientifically known as Vigna radiata, a type of plant in the legume family. Green Gram is an essential crop of pulses. It is a rich source of high-quality protein. Green Gram cultivation is suitable for all three seasons (Kharif, Rabi, and Summer). Let’s check out the top 19 steps to boost Green Gram yield below.
Green Gram deals with many multiple intercropping systems. Being a short-term crop, it fits into a diverse cropping system, including an intercrop with many commercial crops. That is the demand for its seeds. High-yielding and YMV-resistant varieties are suitable for all seasons. Cultivation of Green Gram is beneficial as it enriches the soil.
Its cultivation is popular among farmers worldwide to meet the demand for pulses crops. Pulses are the second most nutritious crop. Over the years, demand has multiplied, but production has not kept pace. Therefore, Green Gram cultivation can be beneficial for your business. However, the pulses crop needs proper care and management for good yield. Green Gram is used for various purposes.
Top 19 steps to boost Green Gram yield
Step 1: Soil requirement for crop growth
Green Gram can be cultivated over a wide range of soil. However, it gives the best results when Green Gram is grown on well-drained and sandy loam soils. Green Gram can be grown on various soils in Rabi/summer season, but the important point to keep in mind is to choose well-drained and healthy soil as it will help in better yields.
Step 2: Popular Green Gram varieties for better yields
‘T 1’, ‘T 44’, ‘Varsha (H70-16)’ Hissar, ‘ G 65’, ‘Pusa Baisakhi’, ‘PS 7’, ‘PS 16,’ ‘S 8′,’S 9’, ‘ Jawahar 45′,’ Kopergaon’, ‘ ML 1′,’Ml 5′,’ ML 9′, Varsha, Sunayana, Pusa Vaishali, Pusa Mohini, Amrit, Koppar and Gavon are the major Green Gram varieties.
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Step 3: Climate and land preparation to enhance the crop yield
The soil is warm and humid, an environment conducive to the cultivation of Green Gram for better production. Temperatures should be between 25°C to 35°C, with moderate rainfall required. On the other hand, the accumulation of water and cloudy weather is harmful to the crop. Green Gram is relatively drought tolerant and can produce adequate yields with an annual rainfall of between 350-650 mm. However, too much rain reduces yields.
Excessive rainfall during flowering leads to the abortiveness of flowers, while dry weather conditions are necessary during harvest. The ground must first be cleared of weeds, rocks, and other debris. After that, you need to plow properly to free the soil from clods. After that, the land must be harvested and leveled to get a good crop. It would help ensure that the seed or planting bed was compact and strong.
After the last plowing, you should apply well-decomposed farm manure to increase soil fertility. Choosing fertile, well-drained, and healthy soil will help in better production. In addition, crop rotation will help reduce local pathogens. It is essential to choose a soil with a neutral pH. Loam to clay is best suited for Green Gram. High organic matter will lead to strong seed production. Green lentils grow best at altitudes of 0-1600 m above sea level and in hot climatic conditions.
They adapt well to red sandy loam soils and perform fairly well on very sandy loam soils. Green Gram is not tolerant of wet, poorly drained soil. However, they tolerate drought and will produce adequate yields with an annual rainfall of 650 mm. Heavy rains increase plant growth with a decrease in pod arrangement and growth.
Step 4: Seed selection for better production
Seeds used for sowing should be from an authoritative source. An authoritative source proves the genetic purity of the sown seed and other aspects of seed quality. The seeds used for sowing must also be plentiful to expect a good field. Seeds should be tested for hard, diseased, immature, compressed, spoiled, and colored seeds.
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Step 5: Field preparation for getting more yield
An important field selected for Green Gram cultivation should not be sown with peanuts or Green Gram in previous seasons to avoid voluntary vegetation, which may cause adulteration. Instead, prepare the main field by plowing for good cultivation and make channels and beds for Green Gram cultivation. Then, apply lime at the rate of about 2 tons per hectare with 12.5 tons per hectare of farmyard manure or 13 tons per hectare with composted coir pith to fill the soil with proper nutrients to get about 15 to 20 per cent additional yield.
Step 6: Suggestions for boosting the Green Gram production and productivity
- Expansion of area in pre-Rabi, Rabi, and summer seasons where there is capacity.
- Use better seed varieties in rainy conditions and grow early ripening varieties.
- Sow at the right time.
- Cultivation of pulses in mixed and intercrop systems.
- Irrigation at a critical stage (flower and pod filling stage).
- Introduction to new high-yielding and resistant varieties.
- Effective plant protection measures.
- Liming acid soil once every three years.
Step 7: Sowing time for more crop yield
Kharif crop from June to July and Rabi crop in September or October. The seed can be sown by broadcasting or digging it into the skins behind the plow or by sowing in rows at a 20-30 cm distance with a desi drill with three or four trenches. The seed rate is 15-20 kg/hectare when sown alone and 2-6 kg/hectare for mixed crops.
Green Gram should be sown from the last week of June to mid-July or the first week. Green Gram sowing for summer or spring season crops should be done after harvesting the last crop (Potato, Sugarcane, Mustard, Cotton, etc.). The first 15th of March is best suited for spring/summer planting. Late sown Green Grams are more susceptible to high temperatures and yields.
Step 8: Intercropping for more plant growth
During Kharif, Green Gram is commonly grown as a bean crop and Maize, Millet, Pigeon Pea, and Cotton. During the spring, Green Gram is planted with sugarcane in a ratio of 2: 1, with a row-to-row spacing of 90 cm, and keeps a distance of about 30 cm. Intercropping with sunflower is also suitable with a ratio (2: 6).
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Step 9: Adequate plant spacing is needed for good yield
As the Green Gram crop is considered, spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm is required. The plant population is approximately 3.33 lakh plants per hectare. Good spacing is needed for proper crop development. It helps with other tasks such as intercropping and picking pests and insects in the crop. By keeping a proper distance, the infection will be reduced.
Step 10: Fertilizer requirement for heavy growth and seed formation
Apply 25-40 kg phosphorus (P2O5) and 25 kg nitrogen (N) per hectare at the sowing time. Also, seed treatment with a biofertilizer like Rhizobium is beneficial at a seed rate of 25 Grams per kg. Vermicompost is the best organic fertilizer component and the best treatment for Green Gram crop production.
Foliar application of fertilizers: Sometimes, the basal application of fertilizer alone is not sufficient for a seed crop. When there is a high demand for crop nutrients, it is essential to provide nutrition during heavy growth and seed formation. The seeds of fast-growing pulses are supplied with essential nutrients through plant food. And prepare a nutritional solution for the spray. It is done by soaking the following chemicals in water (100 litres). This nutrient solution is sprayed 25-35 days after sowing and 40-50 days after sowing.
Step 11: Seed rate and seed treatment for pod setting and development
The seed rate is 8-10 kg per acre, depending on the variety. Before sowing, seeds that have shrunk, shriveled, fungal infested, and bruchid infected should be removed, and only good seeds should be sown. Sometimes hard seeds in some varieties are due to the initial dormancy. This type of seed must be identified and treated with commercial sulfuric acid.
Step 12: Irrigation management for more production
Green Gram is grown as a Kharif crop. Provide irrigation according to weather conditions if required. The summer crop requires three to five irrigations, depending on the type of soil and climate. Stop irrigation 55 days after sowing for good yield.
Step 13: Foliar spray 1% urea to improve Green Gram yield
It is recommended to spray urea 1% foliar 30 and 45 days after sowing to improve yield by enhancing physiological and biochemical properties.
Step 14: Intercultural operations for more crop yield
Suppose you took proper care to remove weeds and unwanted plants so that they do not compete with the important crop for nutrients. Thinning is essential for maintaining healthy plants and removing unhealthy and weak plants; applying weeding for the first time 15 days after sowing is recommended. Just after that, you have to put another weeding thirty days after sowing. Also, you can use herbicides to get rid of weeds in your crop.
Step 15: Pest and disease control to maximize crop quality
The incidence of stem fly is very high in most areas. This pest infects plants early, causing the affected plants to dry out and wither. Large insects like aphids, leafhoppers, and whiteflies affect the seed crop during the growth stage. These pests can be controlled by spraying Mehyldematan, Dimethoate, or Phosphomedan at 2 ml per litre. The incidence of yellow mosaic can be seen during the developmental stages of the seed crop. Affected plants show pale yellow symptoms.
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These Green Gram plants can be taken out as soon as they appear. Whiteflies are known to spread the disease, so infected plants are then sprayed with pesticides as described above. Leaf blight and leaf curl diseases also affect the crop. Such plants have to be bullied. In addition, Greens are affected by root rot, which has to be removed, and 0.1% Bavistin solution can be sprayed on the affected area.
Rarely the seed crop is affected by the Cercospora leaf spot, which the presence of brown spots can identify. White powder deposits on the leaves characterize powdery mildew. Cercospora and powdery mildew can be controlled with a 1% Bavistin solution spray. When the plants suddenly wither, and the base of the stem shows brown lesions, root rot is also visible. One of Green Gram growers’ significant problems is nematodes’ attack, which destroys plant twigs and fruits.
To control this, spray 0.1% quinine foss solution during flowering. 10% cythion pesticide solution can be used against insects that attack flowers. The best varieties of seeds can be used to control diseases. The stem bee is an important insect found in this crop. Stem flies affect the plant early, causing it to dry out and wither. The yellow mosaic disease can be seen in the developmental stages of this crop.
Step 16: Weed management for getting more yield
The critical period for weed management is 35 days after sowing (DAS). After that, tAfter that, thelaborer throws two to three hands of weeding. After that, Intercropping can be done if necessary. The herbal medicine is Fluchloralin (Basalin) by 1.5 Kg/hectare or Trifluralin @ 800 ml/hectare. If cultivation is not effective, then weeds grow too much, increasing the cost of cultivation and reducing crop yield.
Step 17: Harvesting time to get a good yield
The timely and smart way of harvesting Green Gram can maximize crop quality and minimize the loss of origin. To get good yields, you must take proper care of the crop and make sure that you use healthy seeds for cultivation. You can use wide high-yielding varieties that produce good yields. To avoid damage due to the scattering of beans, the crop is harvested before the dead ripen.
Avoiding one or two bean picking cycles is also recommended to prevent damage caused by scattering. These plants are uprooted or cut with a sickle, dried on a threshing floor for a week or ten days, beaten with sticks, and scrubbed with baskets. Green Gram should be grown when more than 80% of the beans are ripe. It is also recommended to pick the beans one or two times to avoid damage from breakage.
The plants are cut with a sickle and dried on the threshing floor. Clean seeds must be dried in the sun for 3-4 days so that their moisture content is 8-10% so that they can be stored safely in suitable containers.
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Step 18: Tips to achieve higher yields
- Deep plowing in summer once in 3 years.
- Seed treatment should be done before sowing.
- Fertilizer application must be based on soil test value.
- In the Kharif season, sowing should be done by the ridge and furrow method.
- Yellow mosaic resistant / tolerant types Narendra Mung1, Pant Mung 3, PDM 139 (Samrat), PDM 11, MUM 2, ML 337, IPM 02-14, MH 421, SML 832, etc., according to the suitability of the area.
- Adopt an integrated approach to plant protection
Step 19: Yield affecting factors for Green Gram crop
On average, you get a yield of 15 to 25 quintal/hectare. You get the best profit from Green Gram cultivation by using good skills, caring for the crop, growing high-yielding varieties, and using proper farming methods.
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