The global increase in protein demand has been a boon for tree nuts in general and Almonds in particular. Almonds are fruits produced by the Almond tree (Prunus dulcis). Farmers can play a crucial role in helping trees grow and care for them. Weather conditions like cold or hot temperatures can adversely affect growth and reduce nut set. With minimal variation between seasons – the goal of higher production – and higher quality Almonds ensure maximum profit. Let’s discuss the top 20 steps to boost Almond yield below.
Top 20 steps to boost Almond yield
Step 1: Soil requirement for crop growth
Most varieties of nuts grow more easily on clay or sandy soils than on heavy soils. They also prefer well-drained soil, but pecans can withstand rich soils that occasionally flood. It prefers loose and sandy soils. In more clay soils, it will be susceptible to soil-borne diseases. Almonds give excellent yields on deep, smooth, well-drained soil but will tolerate poor soil unless the soil is too wet or poorly drained.
Although most nut trees are wind tolerant, too much-exposed space can shorten and impair top growth and cause premature nut fall. Most nuts will have reduced yields in the lowlands, where frost usually occurs in late spring and autumn. Trees need enough rain (approximately 500-600 mm or 20-25 inches per year) or irrigation to produce good yields and well-packed nuts, although they will survive with less water.
Step 2: Suggested varieties for good yield
Growing conditions are the most important thing when choosing your tree. Some standard types, including ‘Carmel,’ which gives an excellent, well-protected nut and an excellent pollenizer, and ‘Mission’ is a very productive tree.
- Dry temperature area varieties – Ni Plus Ultra, Texas and Thinshald
- High and middle mountainous region varieties – Nikitskai, Non-Peril, ISL, Merced, and White Brandis
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Step 3: The best climate for Almond trees growth
Their ideal growing area is an area that receives dry, hot summers with plenty of sunshine. Light is essential for good Almond production. Almond trees need full sunlight, at least 6 hours a day, but more sun means better bloom. By understanding the Almond growing stages, growers can help determine why different conditions affect kernel production, quality, and harvest time.
Step 4: Almond winter care
The Almond tree is a hardy tree that grows well in 5 to 9 zones. But the colder the zone, the more preparation you need to protect the tree from the winter weather. Lack of winter care can hinder tree growth, cause parts of the canopy to wither and die, and affect the production of flowers and nuts.
Solution for this problem: Two keywords for Almond winter care are pruning and shaping. After the Almonds are harvested and before the leaves fall, when you start preparing the Almond tree for winter. Carefully clean all debris and fallen leaves and branches under the tree. They serve as hibernating sites for pathogens during the winter. Part of your winter care involves the use of sprays on dormant trees. Sprays will kill all pathogens and fungal eggs that hang on stems and branches as they wait for spring to arrive. Spray again in early spring before flowering for the first time.
Step 5: Pruning required for high yields of good quality nuts
Pruning encourages sustainable, high yields of good quality nuts. The shape is essential and can affect production quantity, quality, and ease of harvesting or other farming activities. The pruning of young Almond trees determines their future condition, therefore determining the productivity and quality of nuts. It must be corrected to ensure a good harvest.
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Step 6: Nutrition for trees affects Almonds’ weight
The tree’s best nutrition is essential for getting a high nut yield. Potassium is needed in large quantities for nut filling and maximum yield.
Step 7: Nitrogen for getting high nut yield
Nitrogen is one of the essential nutrients in Almonds. Nitrogen is necessary for growth and development, which is one of the critical building blocks of protein. It supports photosynthesis and strong productivity growth, leading to higher Almonds yields. Almond trees need nitrogen to regenerate and stimulate fruit trees. In addition, it is essential for the growth and development of the fruit. Nitrogen is most required when Almond trees are growing. So, meet the demand for nitrogen trees, as deficiency of this element can reduce the yield.
Most of the nitrogen applied to the Almond orchard becomes part of the kernel, hull, and shell. Therefore, it can be used to estimate the expected yield of the garden that the nitrogen extracted from the crop needs to be changed. Apply approximately 33 grams of nitrogen per 326 grams of estimated grain (meat) production.
Step 8: Potassium (K) is essential for crop growth
Potassium (K) is necessary for the transport of sugars and the formation of starch, increasing nut and kernel size. Potassium helps in light synthesis and is also essential for productivity growth, which allows the plant to use light more efficiently. Potassium will help in the early growth of trees. Still, the critical period of attack in mature gurus occurs during fruit formation, and applications are required to ensure that the K supply at this time improves the yield and quality of Almonds. Potassium, balanced with nitrogen, also promotes growth – including better water use. It is essential for large-scale nut filling and high yields.
Step 9: Calcium and Boron on an excellent set of fruits
Calcium helps build trees and is especially important for developing good quality nuts with less disease. Boron is essential for flowering and pollination to ensure a good set of fruits.
Step 10: No flowers on Almond trees
The more flowers you have, the more nuts you cut at the end of the season. But sometimes, the Almond tree does not flower. When a tree produces too many nuts a year, it can take a break from the tiring process of full flowering and fruiting the following year. Pruning plays an essential role in flowering.
Solution – Start pruning trees in late summer after harvesting nuts. Do not delay because new branches will not bloom this year. If the tree was taking a year’s leave after a big harvest a year ago, you can do nothing but water the tree and feed and relax it. Some diseases can prevent the tree from blooming. Look for diseases like Bliss Blight and Fire Blight. They cause the flowers to wither and die before the pollen is applied.
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Apply a sulfur-based fungicide to treat blossom blight and remove all infected flowers to prevent the spread of the disease. Lastly, make sure the tree is getting enough water. One week is the proper quota between one and two inches, depending on soil drainage and weather. Drought can cause a tree to drop flower buds before they open to conserve resources.
Step 11: Pollination improves crop yield
These fruit trees do not pollinate themselves, so artificial pollen is required in cultivation. So, plant with 33% pollinizer plantation so that the flowers blend well. Waris and Ne-Plus-Ultra are commonly used as pollinizers for the commercial cultivation of Almonds. However, having about 8 to 10 hives of bees is highly beneficial. It also increases fruit yield by more than 10%.
Step 12: Propagation Method for better plant growth
This fruit crop is mainly propagated by growing plants or seeds. Grow Almonds from seeds; the seeds should be sown directly in the field in well-prepared beds. However, when sowing seeds, the nuts should be finely chopped so that the seeds germinate better. Anyone can use peach as a rootstock for propagation. There is a proper shield budding method for the better growth of plants.
Step 13: Water your tree regularly falling of raw fruits
Almond trees tolerate drought and thrive in hot, dry summers but need regular watering. Water them at least once a week; stop watering when you have a lot of rain. Keep the soil well hydrated but not too wet – soaking your trees can cause roots to rot. Irrigation should be done at intervals of 20 to 30 days in the winter season. In summer, trees should be watered regularly at intervals of 10 days.
It is also worth noting that fruit plants need regular irrigation during the summer days, eliminating the problem of falling raw fruits. At the same time, straw, leaves, or other organic matter should be used on the ground around the Almond trees to reduce the weeds around the tree.
Step 14: Fertilizers and manures will help maximum nut yield
Almond tree plants are heavy feeders. Therefore, a good amount of fertilizer and fertilizer is needed. Applying about 5 tons of crop fertilizer per hectare at the time of land preparation is beneficial in increasing the fertility and productivity of the land. Also, use about 20 kg of crop fertilizer for proper and better growth of plants.
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Step 15: Tips for getting maximum nut yield
It can be obtained from good fertile soil. Perform a single soil test before planting to determine soil fertility and deficiency of any organic matter. Any organic matter deficiency should be corrected by supplementation only during soil preparation. However, provide fertilizer and fertilizer based on soil tests and leaf analysis of nutrients. Foliar spray of 2% urea is beneficial in promoting fruit set and the development of other essential stages like formation and flowering.
Step 16: Weeding necessary for good yield
The first weeding should be done in 10-15 days. It results in good plant growth. After that, the weeding should be done regularly.
Step 17: Fruit drop
Fruits can fall for the following reasons;
- Insufficient cooling – random awakening and degenerate flowers.
- Frost damages.
- Bad weather disrupts insect and bee pollen.
Step 18: Keep an eye on insects
Almond trees are susceptible to many pests, the most common of which is the navel orange worm. The best way to keep them away is to cut all the nuts off the tree. If you notice that the growth of your tree has slowed down or you see an outbreak of insects near the base of the tree, apply Bacillus thuringiensis spray to kill them.
Step 19: Almond tree not producing nuts
Almond trees have not yet begun to bloom and produce nuts. You have to wait up to 4 years before picking the nuts from the tree. If the tree is still tiny, you know why it is not producing nuts yet. But if the tree blooms profusely and does not produce the same nuts, you may have a pollination problem. The third reason may be the lack of cross-pollination. Most Almond varieties require another harmonious tree nearby to cross-pollinate the flowers.
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Solution – Depending on the reason for the lack of nuts, you will need to take a different action. You only have to wait for the tree’s fourth year for young trees. If it’s a lack of pollinators, consider hand-polishing the trees yourself. Or swear by the self-pollinating Almonds. And lastly, make sure you have another Almond tree within 50 feet of the first one. And make sure the two trees are aligned to ensure cross-pollination.
Step 20: Harvest management to improve the quality of the crop
Harvest management, which reduces contamination from dust or other foreign substances, will also enhance the quality of the produce. The fruit of the Almond tree is harvested when the hulls split, and the shell becomes dry and brown. Almonds take 180 to 240 days to ripen, while the nuts (embryos and shells) have dried to the minimum moisture.
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