Common Turmeric Diseases and Pests
Today let us discuss about the common Turmeric Diseases and Pests along with their control methods.
Pests in Turmeric:
- The maggot drills into the shoots of turmeric plant and which results to holes that are found on the plants.
- The maggots feed on the rhizome which causes rhizome rot.
- Select good quality seeds from reputed suppliers for planting.
- The affected plants should be removed immediately and destroyed.
- Use organic pesticide, diazinon can be a best option.
- In case of severe infection, Application of 10% phorate @ 20 kg/ha should be applied to the base of the plants.
Shoot Boring Caterpillar:
- These pests lay eggs on leaves and other soft parts of the plant.
- These caterpillars hatch out of eggs bore into the shoots and fed on the inner content which causes formation of dead hearts.
- Remove affected shoots along with caterpillar and dispose them.
- In case of Spraying of carbaryl 50wp @ 1 kg in 500 lit. Water can be a good solution.
- Spraying of 0.04% endosulfan can also be a good option.
- These pests feed on tender rhizomes, roots and base of pseudostem causing stunting, chlorosis, poor tillering and necrosis of leaves.
- You can observe root galls and lesions that lead to rotting of the roots.
- Dispose the infested plants completely.
- Infected rhizomes should be treated with hot water (50°C) for 10 minutes.
- Use nematode free rhizomes for planting.
- Use marigold as inter crop.
- Deep ploughing or solarized beds in summer to make bed fertile.
- Implement crop rotation with cereal crops, marigold, Chrysanthemum, Sesbania, Gaillardia, castor bean and Desmodium spp.
- Apply Neem (Azaradirachtaindica) seed cake before planting.
Common Disease in Turmeric:
- You can observe sudden wilting of the plant.
- The rhizomes and roots of wilted plants get rotten.
- Younger sprouts are the most susceptible to this disease. Severe Nematode infestation can lead to rhizome rot disease.
- Temperature above 30°C and high soil moisture climatic conditions favors this disease.
- Poor drainage system and water logging increases the intensity of the disease.
- Drenching of soil with 1% ceresin can be a best option.
- Use disease free sets for Planting.
- Spraying of Bordeaux mixture 5:5:50 can be an effective treatment.
- Avoid water logging conditions and implement proper irrigation.
This is a soil-borne disease that affects the leaves in the months July to October. This disease survives in plant debris. This disease spread through rain splashes in rainy seasons.
- You can observe brown spots of various sizes on the upper surface of the young leaves.
- The lesions are irregular in shape and white or grey in the center of the leaves.
- Later, the spots may coalesce and form an irregular patch that covers almost the whole leaf.
- The center of the spots on the leaves contains fruit head shaped fruiting structures.
- High soil moisture can favor this disease.
- The temperature below 25°C and leaf wetness can increase the chance of this disease.
- Proper sanitation and irrigation will protect the plants from this disease.
- For an effective treatment, Spray with Mancozeb 0.25% or copper oxy chloride 0.25% immediately after the appearance of symptoms and at 15 days interval.
Read: Garlic Diseases and Pests.
It is a soil borne disease survives on infected plant debris.
- The major symptoms appear as small, oval, rectangular or irregular brown spots on either side of the leaves, which soon become dirty yellow or dark brown.
- The leaves also turn yellow.
- If the infection is severe the plants look like water soaked the rhizome yield is reduced.
- High soil moisture favors this disease.
- Temperature below 25°C and leaf wetness conditions will favor this disease.
- Proper irrigation, avoid overhead water, prepare soil beds with well-drained soil.
- Spray with Mancozeb 0.25% or copper oxy chloride 0.25% as soon as you observe the symptoms.
It is a viral disease, that lives in the organic matter in the soil for many years. It infects form vulnerable plants.
- The major symptoms are root rot and rhizome rot that mainly occurs in the typical dry rot of rhizomes from October onwards.
- The affected rhizomes become very soft and shrunken, and then dry up and become very hard.
- You can observe foliar yellowing and drying up of foliage during maturity period of the crop during the months of October– November.
- When you open the infected rhizomes, the affected zones appear as dull brown and dark.
- High soil temperatures (Temperatures above 35°C) and 15-20 per cent higher moisture in the soil and alluvial or sandy soil conditions favors this disease.
- Sudden wilting and death of the plant without any symptoms like yellowing or spotting of leaves is the major symptom.
- This disease will wilt all the branches at the same time.
- The infected plants have wilted stems that cut across, the pith has a darkened, plants look like completely water-soaked.
- When you press the infected stems, you can observe greyish slimy ooze comes out from the infected part.
- The disease is severe, it may cause extensive hollowing of the stem.
- The diseases affect is very high in moist soils at temperatures above 24°C.
- High soil temperature and moisture will encourage the this disease.
- Avoid overhead watering and implement proper irrigation methods.
- You use insecticides for effective treatment. Spray Bordeaux mixture 5:5:50 for best results.
- Spray once a week to reduce infection.
Nitrogen: the nitrogen deficiency will give very poor yields in turmeric farming.
- Pale or yellow green leaves.
- Reddish tints that turn at the leaf margins and it spreads to the midrib or central vein. The infected are Leaves are small. Overall growth is markedly reduced.
- Deficiency results in reduction of rhizome yield.
- For nitrogen deficiency, Use Foliar spray of urea 1% or DAP 2% twice in a week
Potassium: Potassium deficiency is common in turmeric plants.
- Young leaves suffer with extreme deficiency.
- Potassium deficiency leads to reduced growth and shortened internodes.
- Potassium deficiency leads marginal burn or scorch (brown leaf edges), necrotic (dead) spots in the leaf, reduction of yields.
- There will be lateral breaks in stems and they wilt readily.
- Application of K or foliar spray of K2 and SO4 @ 1% at every night will reduce the deficiency.
Iron: Young leaves of plants will suffer with iron deficiency.
- You can observe interveinal chlorosis and it spread entire leaf.
- In severe cases, the leaves turn white.
- Treat the Soil with FeSO4 by foliar spray ofFeSO4 @ 0.5%during 3rd, 4th and 5th months.
Read: Turmeric Cultivation.