When a new plant grows from the part a parent plant, it is known as vegetative propagation. Simply, plant fragments function by developing into a new individual plant. Vegetative propagation is a method of asexual reproduction of a plant. It is also known as Vegetative reproduction. The greatest advantage of vegetative propagation is the production of natural clones from parent plants. There are two types of vegetative propagation. They are natural vegetative propagation and artificial propagation.
Natural Vegetative Propagation
The development of a plant from the specialized structures of the mother plant, it is called natural vegetative propagation. There are various types of specialized structures. Those structures mostly form from the stems, roots, and leaves of the mother plant. They are budding, rhizomes, stolons, suckers, bulbs, tubers, corms.
When a plant is grown from an outgrowth of plant or plant part, it is known as budding. The plant part is known as a bud. Potato is a good example of budding. In potato, those buds are termed as eyes.
They are the stem-like structures of the plant that lies across the ground. The new roots and shoots grow from this special structure when they are cut and placed in a pot or soil. A typical example of Rhizomes is Ginger. Rhizomes are thus formed due to the accumulation of proteins and starch of the plant.
Stolons are unlike Rhizomes that grow from the existing stem beneath the soil surface. They are also known as Runners. While propagation of those runner plants, buds are formed from which roots and shoots arise. An example is Strawberry.
They are the stems that are formed from the basal parts of the parent plant. They are also called as Root sprouts. An example is Banana. In Banana, the baby suckers are produced surrounding the mother plant. Thus formed suckers are further cut off and planted in a new place.
Bulbs are the aggregated leaves below the soil surface. They are formed due to the accumulation of nutrients by the plant. Onion and Garlic are good examples for bulbs. Detach those offset bulbs and pot up to produce new plants in a simple and easy manner.
They are o two types. One is stem tubers and the other is root tubers. They are swollen structures formed from the rhizomes or runners of the mother plant. Tubers produced from the stems are stem tubers and those arise from roots are root tubers. A typical example is a sweet potato.
Unlike bulbs, they are the solid enlarged tissues formed underground. An example is Gladiolus. Cutting off those underground formed corms is done and replanted. Each portion of the corm has at least single bud and generates into a new corm.
They are the additional offshoots that develop on orchid plants. Keikis mostly develop on flower stalks or vegetative stems of the Orchid plants. This method of natural vegetative propagation is mostly found in orchid plants. A good example of Keikis is Dendrobium and
Phalaenopsis orchids. It is the easiest method of propagation in Orchid plants. However, Keikis is pronounced as Kay-kay.
In addition, certain plants also propagate from leaves like bryophyllum. In such type of plants, the buds on those plant leaves detach at a certain stage of the plant and produce a new plant when comes in contact with the soil.
Artificial vegetative propagation
When vegetative propagation is done by an external agent or farmer or horticulturist, it is known as Artificial vegetative propagation. It involves the use of specialized types of equipment like secauters, cutters, etc., Generally, artificial vegetative propagation is done to induce desirable characters. This method of propagation is widely used by commercial indoor gardeners and nursery growers.
It is a simple method of artificial vegetative propagation. It involves the cutting of a plant part like a stem or nodal region and planting the cutoff part into the soil or pot. The roots are formed from that newly planted. A good example is Rose cuttings and money plant cuttings.
Grafting involves the aggregation of two plant parts mainly stem. The root part is scion and the stem part is called stock. That aggregation is mostly done manually with hands. Grafting is done mostly in fruit trees like Guava, Cashew etc. Grafting is done to produce new desired plant varieties.
It is a process of bending plant parts like branches and stem on to the ground and further covered with soil. The nodal region of the stem must touch to the ground from which the roots develop. The part from where the roots develop is called a layer. In some plants, layering may also occur naturally in some plants. In addition, layering can be done in another way called air layering stems of two different plant parts are brought together and tightened using rubber or thread or plaster along with growth medium.
Suckers are the specialized plant parts that are dense and compact. Those suckers are cut off and planted into the soil for new plant growth. Thus new suckers are grown producing an adventitious root system. Suckering is mostly used in propagating shrubs and trees. This method is practiced in cherry, hazelnut and apple plantations.
In this method of artificial vegetative propagation, the plant cells are taken from desired plant parts. They are further cultured and in specific and sterilized containers. Then, a mass of tissue develops from those artificially nurtured plant cells known as callus. Finally, those callus is nurtured in artificial media until it forms a new plantlet. Tissue culture techniques are mostly used in producing transgenic plants.
Offsets are mostly used in propagating the bamboo trees. Offsets are part of the bamboo trees. They are the lower parts of the single culm basal to the roots of the bamboo tree.
Artificial vegetative propagation is mostly used by scientists and horticulturists in order to produce plants with desired characters like productivity and quality.
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