Groundnut is also known as Peanut. It is a leguminous crop cultivated primarily for its edible seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics; it is important for small and large commercial producers. Groundnut is one of the most important oilseed crops with 44-56% oil and 22-30% protein. It accounts for about 45% of the area and 55% of the total oilseed production.
In India, Groundnut is grown in all three seasons. Kharif, Rabi, and summer only Kharif production contribute about 75% of the total production. Due to their leguminous nature, Groundnuts can biologically fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil, which enriches the soil and benefits the crop in rotation. Let’s check out the ways groundnut farming can make you rich in a short time
Best bets to increase Groundnut production
As a Groundnut grower, need to keep in mind 3 things to get the highest yield of Groundnut;
- Good choice of Groundnuts;
- Plant nutrition for Groundnuts;
- Crop protection measures
High yielding varieties of Groundnut
- Garner 1
- Garner 3
- HNG 10
- GG7 (38)
- Raj Mangafli 3 (RG 559-3)
- AK 12-24
- Smruti OG52- (1)
- TAG 24
- ICGS 11
- TMV 2
An easy way to make a profit from Groundnut cultivation
Booster to increase groundnut yield
Research findings show that most of the soils in Tamil Nadu are deficient in zinc, boron, and iron (micronutrients). In addition to the basic use of essential nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, the Groundnut crop also needs some micronutrients on a minimum dose. Technology has been developed by the oilseed research station, Tindivanam (TNAU) to provide micronutrient mixture as a foliar application during the flowering stage to increase yield.
The main purpose of this spray is to increase the number of flowers, speed up photosynthesis, prevent flower drop, and meet the required nutrients faster rate compared to soil application. The components of the micronutrient compound are one kilogram of diammonium phosphate, approximately 400 grams of ammonium sulfate, 200 grams of borax and ferrous sulfate, 175 ml of planofix, and 500 grams of zinc sulfate.
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All of the above nutrients are readily available in the local market and are cost-effective. The nutrient mixture should be well mixed in 10 liters of water and filtered. The clean solution is mixed in 190 liters of water and sprayed up to one acre. Spraying should be done in the evening, especially 25 and 35 days after sowing. The total cost of the spray is about Rs. 750 per spray.
Increased yield is three to four bags (40 kg/bag) per acre of dry pods as well as up to a higher percentage of shelling.
The Department of Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore has recently launched an instant nutrient mix spray called “Groundnut Rich” which contains all the essential micronutrients for plant growth. The cost of the groundnut-rich tonic is approximately Rs. 120 / kg
The recommended dose is 2.3 mg per spray. This instant groundnut mix can be obtained from the Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore. Otherwise, farmers can make their tonic by mixing the above ingredients in the right proportions.
How to increase Groundnut production through best practices
Groundnut plants need well-drained sandy loam or loamy soil for better performance. The soil should be deep and the soil should have a pH of 5.5 to 7 with a high fertility index. It has been observed that heavy soil is not suitable for cultivation as it is difficult to harvest and beans are damaged. An adequate supply of calcium in the soil is essential for the production of well-developed and mature Groundnuts. This condition can be aggravated in soils with low organic matter.
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Seeds are highly susceptible to physical harm and should be handled with care at all times. Damaged or split Groundnut seeds will not germinate. It is important to plant high-quality seeds and better seeds will produce healthier.
Groundnut seed rate
The seed rate varies from 75 to 110 kg per acre depending on seed weight and sowing time.
Choice of cultivation and productivity
The seed yield can be expected depending largely on the conditions of cultivation and production used. Under irrigation and with best management practices, Akwa can produce between 3 and 4 t ha-1. Robbie, Sellie, Kwarts, Anel, PAN 9212, and Akwa will still yield acceptable yields under low production conditions (e.g., under drought).
Proper use of water
In groundnut farming, during the flowering stage (20 to 30 days after sowing), budding stage (40 to 45 days), and leguminous stage (65 to 70 days) of Kharif groundnut, rainwater must be applied in case of stress. Water the ground 4-5 days after sowing of groundnut, so that the remaining seeds germinate. Then irrigate 10 to 12 times at intervals of 8 to 10 days like soil manure. Water stress should not be allowed to enter the soil during the growth period.
A well-planned, crop rotation system can ensure good quality high yields. To reduce the risk in the farming system, Groundnuts should be grown alternately with other crops, especially grasses. Groundnuts have been shown to improve the yield of later maize and other cereal crops by up to 20%.
Field preparation for Groundnuts
Plow the land 2 to 3 times at maximum soil moisture to ensure good surface cultivation to a depth of 15 cm. Apply planking after each plow to retain moisture. Use a better plow (MB plow / Bose or Rocket plow) and a power tiller with a motivator or a tractor with a cultivator to better prepare the seedbed. A good seedbed is very important for the successful cultivation of Groundnuts as it allows quick access to the roots and easy pegging and formation of Groundnuts.
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Gather the weeds and stubble of the previous Kharif crop. Apply FYM or Fertilizer @ 5.0 t / ha and add it before final land preparation. Use chlorpyrifos 1.0% dust @ 25 kg/ha when preparing the soil in termite-infested fields. Rabi groundnuts grown on residual soil moisture cannot use lime. However, lime can be applied in acidic soils under irrigation conditions. Apply lime according to soil test results or @ 1.25t / ha at least one month before sowing.
Harvesting and production
When the crop is ready, the leaves begin to turn yellow. The shell of the bean hardens and the shell of the bean turns black on the inside. Thus, if the above harvesting techniques are used after the crop is ready, an average yield of 17 to 20 quintals per hectare in Kharif and 25 to 30 quintals per hectare in Groundnuts in summer can be obtained.
Cost and profit analysis in Groundnut cultivation
- Total investment – 1,43,344.00 including labor charges.
- Yield from 1 hectare of land – 17 quintals (approximately).
- Cost of 1 kg groundnuts – Rs. 120.
- Groundnut income from 17 quintals – Rs. 2,04,000.00.
- Profit from the farm is: (Rs. 2,04,000.00 – Rs. 1,43,344.00) = Rs. 60,656.00.
High profit from Groundnut cultivation (₹2 Lacs from 4 acres in 120 days)
P.R. Subramanian is a pioneer farmer in organic Groundnut farming in Coimbatore. His farm is located in Pattakaranpudhur village near Annur. Subramanian says he has been cultivating organic farms for the last 20 years, pigeon peas, green gram, and Groundnuts alternatively. He cultivated groundnuts on 4 acres of land. Irrigation was not possible in the last 3 years due to the lack of monsoon rains in the northeast and southwest. Seasonal cultivation could not be done. But the monsoon has been good this year, which has brought a wave of happiness to their faces.
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Subramanian says he will need 50 kilograms of seeds per acre. He will be able to harvest in 120 days. He is confident that he will be able to gain 1,200 to 1,500 kg. Raw groundnuts and if 1,000 kg. If it dries, it will get 800 kgs good quality of Groundnuts. In addition, after harvesting, dried groundnut creepers will be used as dry fodder for cattle.
Because it is a traditional variety, he can sell them directly as Groundnut seeds. He will dry them and keep the stock and whatever is needed will be sold in the market. Today the selling rate is Rs. 70 to Rs. 80 per kg. Out of 4 acres of land under groundnut cultivation, he can get 6000 kg of raw variety. And after drying, it will be able to gain 4,800 kg. If he can sell it at the rate of Rs.70 per kg, he will be able to get a refund of Rs.3,36,000 as income. After deducting Rs. 1,32,000, he will get a net profit of Rs. 2,04,000 in his expenses. Without fail.
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