Agriculture farming in Telangana
Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of Telangana and the better performance of this sector is vital for inclusive growth. Telangana’s agriculture department separated from Andhra Pradesh as part of Andhra Pradesh bifurcation and it aims to promote agricultural trade and to boost agricultural production and productivity in Telangana.
A step by step guide to agriculture farming in Telangana
Agriculture forms the backbone of Telangana’s Economy. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari, and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation system. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for the irrigation system. Rice is the major food crop and other important local crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango, and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production that are sunflower and peanuts, have gained favor. There are many multi-state irrigation projects, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects. There have been important changes in the structure and performance of the agrarian economy in the state in recent years.
Telangana state is endowed with bountiful resources having good soils, diversified cropping pattern, and main irrigation systems fed by rivers like Godavari and Krishna. Agriculture is a way of life and a tradition that has shaped the culture and economic life of the people of Telangana. So, it will continue to be central to all strategies for planned socio-economic development of the State. The State Government has emphasized the need to achieve about a 6% growth rate and increased returns on investment to farmers through improved technology, effective extension reach, efficient input delivery, mechanization, adequate credit, and crop insurance.
Variety of soils for agriculture farming in Telangana
In Telangana State, there are different varieties of soils ranging from fertile alluvial to very poor sandy soils. Soil types exist in Telangana including red sandy soils, deep red loamy soils, and deep black cotton soils. Red soils are predominant, accounting for about 48 percent of the total area. Other soil types in the State are black cotton soils, alluvial, rocks, and boulders accounting for about 25 percent, 20 percent, and 7 percent of the area, respectively.
Agriculture potential of Telangana
- Soils of Telangana are well-drained to moderately well-drained and give a favorable environment for soil fertility management.
- Soils are suitable for a wide range of crops including food grains, oilseeds, pulses, fruit crops, pastures, and forestry, etc. There are several agriculture-related-institutions of importance in Telangana, including ICAR Institutes such as DRR, DOR, MANAGE, NIPHM, and NAARM, NIRD, NFDB, CRIDA, and NRCS.
- Foodgrain production recorded a growth rate of about 3.97% (CAGR) as against 2.43 % at all India level.
- 37.42 lakh quintals of seeds of various crops with an area of about 3.22 lakh acres, HYV Paddy, Hybrid paddy, Maize, Cotton and Bengal gram, etc. are produced.
Crop condition in Telangana
Farmers are taking up sowing operations as the monsoon is active over the Telangana. The paddy nurseries are raised under assured irrigation sources. Transplantation of paddy is in progress. Sowings of rainfed crops such as Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi, Groundnut, Sesamum, pulses crops, Soybean, and Cotton, etc., are in progress. Planting of paddy and sowings of rain-fed crops will be in full swing in the next 2 weeks. The Department is taking all necessary steps to make obtainable required quantities of various crop seeds and fertilizers to the farmers during Kharif 2018 season. Sowings of Kharif crops are in progress and then overall the condition of the standing crop is good.
Telangana saw its highest production of crop formation at 1.3 crore metric tonnes. According to the statistics department, the rise in crop production to an increase in area under cultivation due to irrigation system projects such as Kaleshwaram and increased rainfall. The year also saw the highest year-on-year growth in food production, a rise of about 42% or 37 lakh metric tonnes over the previous year. Except for turmeric, major crops have seen a rise in production. According to the statistics department, turmeric production dipped by 14,000 metric tonnes with a total production of around 3 lakh metric tonnes.
Chili production saw a rise of 24,000 metric tonnes with total production estimated to be 3.28 lakh metric tonnes. Oilseeds saw an important rise in production with an estimated total production of 6.6 lakh metric tonnes, an increase of 42,000 metric tonnes over the previous year.
Constraints in Telangana agriculture farming
There is a lot of potential for growth in agriculture, constraints are hampering the same. The major constraints in Telangana agriculture are as follows;
- Low and erratic rainfall leaves many areas under unprecedented drought, as some areas are subjected to floods
- Semi-arid climate restricts the growth of natural vegetation, due to which, the scope of organic matter development in soils is limited and, so, the most soils are inherently poor in obtainable Nitrogen, the chief nutrient for plant growth 63% of the agriculture is rain-fed, which is exposed to the hostilities of climate
- Among the farming community, about 85% of farmers are marginal or small with poor socioeconomic condition High labor cost and low mechanization levels have increased the cost of cultivation
- Agricultural extension is devoid of enough strength and the mobility to address every farmer at the right time
Important crops of Telangana agriculture farming
Telangana has considered agriculture as its main goal to educate farmers on the latest technical farming, and train framers to boost agricultural production. In three main zones namely, Northern Zone, Central Zone, and Southern Zone. Some of the important crops that are grown in Telangana are Rice, Maize/ Corn, Red Gram, Green Gram, Jowar, Sesame, Castor, Cotton, Groundnut, Soya bean, Black Gram to mention a few.
Crops grown in different agro-climatic zones of agriculture of Telangana are;
- Telangana grows 27 important crops in Kharif and Rabi seasons put together covering an area of about 53.51 lakh hectare.
- The important crops grown in Telangana are Rice, Maize, Pulses, Groundnut, Cotton, Chillies, and Sugarcane.
|Agro-climatic zone||Kharif season crop||Rabi season crop|
|Northern Telangana Zone||Rice, Cotton, Maize, Soybean, Red gram, Green gram, Turmeric||Rice, Maize, Jowar, Bangal Gram, Green Gram, Sunflower Sesame, Ground net|
|Central Telangana Zone||Rice, Cotton, Maize, Soybean, Red gram, Green gram, Sesame||Rice, Maize, Bangal Gram, Green Gram, Black Gram, Ground net, Sunflower|
|Southern Telangana Zone||Rice, Cotton, Maize, Red gram, Green gram, Sesame, Castor||Rice, Maize, Bangal Gram, Ground net, Sunflower, Safflower|
Telangana is in the rice bowl of South India, and rice is cultivated in 44 lakh acres. Though, climatic changes have greatly influenced the rainfall amount, due to which the area cultivated with rice has decreased.
Maize (Corn) is the second major cultivated crop in the Telangana state in around 14 lakh acres producing annually 16 Lakh tonnes. It is used for human food and animal feed; it is now widely used in corn starch industry, and baby corn production, etc.
Jowar is an important Rabi season crop cultivated in 1.20 lakh acres of land across the state. Sorghum or corn popularly called “Jowar” in India. It is used for human consumption, fodder animal feed, and the production of starch, adhesive, and paper, etc. The ideal climate for the cultivation of Jowar must be warm and arid and the average annual rainfall should be 45 cm.
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Cotton is widely cultivated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Telangana regions and stands in the 3rd position in cotton production in India,. Cotton is popularly known as “White Gold” and is grown in most of the parts of Telangana. Each year cotton is cultivated in about 12.5 lakh hectares with a production of about 48 lakh bales. Telangana has traditionally been a cotton crop-producing state, particularly the northern regions of Karimnagar, Nalgonda, Adilabad, and Mahabubnagar, which have black soil.
Castor is one of the major oil-producing crops of Telangana state. Approximately 80000-85000 hectares of land is cultivated with castor, the average yield harvested is about 633 kilograms of castor seeds per hectare. The oil extracted from Castor seed is used widely for several purposes. Castor is cultivated in Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Ranga Reddy, Medak, and Karimnagar districts of Telangana.
Groundnut is cultivated in 2.0 lakh hectares across the Telangana region making it one of the major crops of the Telangana state. Groundnut is widely grown in Mahbubnagar, Warangal, Nalgonda, and Karimnagar Districts. Crop rotation is important in Groundnut cultivation, and this helps to utilize nutrients efficiently utilization and reduces soil-borne diseases.
Soya beans are one of the most widely cultivated crops in the world as an Oilseed and a Legumes crop. Soya beans contain 36% protein, 30% carbohydrates, and 20% oil. Annually, soya bean is cultivated in India in 110 lakh hectares to produces 147 lakh tonnes. It is grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Telangana, and Chhattisgarh.
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Pigeon pea is popularly known as Red Gram. It is cultivated in 2.75 lakh hectares across Telangana state and it is the major crop for Mahbubnagar, Adilabad, Ranga Reddy, Medak, Nalgonda, Warangal, and Khammam districts.
Green Gram is cultivated in approximately 1.5 lakhs hectares across Telangana. This Green Gram crop is widely grown in Nalgonda, Medak, Warangal, Mahbubnagar, and Khammam districts across the state.
Black Gram popularly called as “Urad Dal” is one of the important pulse crops (protein ~25%). Black Gram crop is resistant to adverse climatic conditions and helps to improve the soil fertility by fixing nitrogen in the soil. Black Gram is grown around 55,000 hectares of land across Telangana in Nizamabad, Medak, and Adilabad.
Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed crops and popularly called as “Gingelly” or “Til”. This crop is cultivated as summer, Kharif and semi-Rabi crops in 25,000 to 30,000 acres across the state.
Farm mechanization in Telangana
Farm Mechanization Scheme is the flagship scheme of the Government of Telangana state. After the formation of the new state of Telangana, the Telangana Government has enhanced the budget for Farm Mechanization from 150 to 335 crores.
- Implementation of Farm Mechanization scheme is on-line through Mee Seva.
- The Government is giving more importance to establish CHCs for various crops such as Paddy, Cotton, Maize, Groundnut, and Sugarcane.
Farm Mechanization component of Normal State Plan (FM-NSP)
It is proposed to supply various farm implements or machinery i.e. Tractor Drawn Implements, High-Cost Machinery (Up to 1 lakh and 1 to 5 lakh), Mini Tractors, Post Harvest Equipment, Plant Protection Equipment, Inter-cultivation Equipment, HDPE Tarpaulins and establishment of Custom Hiring Centers for Paddy Land Preparation, Cotton, Maize, and Paddy Harvesting package.
Agricultural schemes in Telangana
The mission for integrated development of horticulture
- To enhance horticulture production, develop nutritional security and income support to farm households;
- To establish convergence and synergy among multiple on-going and planned programs for horticulture improvement;
- To promote, and disseminate technologies, through a seamless blend of traditional wisdom and modern scientific knowledge;
- To make opportunities for employment generation for skilled and unskilled persons, especially unemployed youth.
RKVY (Rastriya Krishi Vikasa Yojana)
- The creation of infrastructure like permanent pandals at farmer’s field for quality production of creeper vegetables.
- Enhancing the quality of vegetables produces by reduced pest and disease incidence.
- Demonstrating the benefit of integration of different agriculture practices such as Shade netting, Plastic Mulching, Micro-irrigation for increased vegetable production during the summer season, thereby encouraging off-season vegetable cultivation by the farmers.
- Reducing the gap between demand and supply of vegetables and then achieve self-sufficiency. Encouraging the Horticulture farmers towards plastic mulching in horticulture crops cultivation.
Objectives of the Scheme;
- To enhance productivity and crop yields per unit area which in turn gives higher returns to farmers.
- Promotion of high-value Horticulture crops under Poly house structure.
- Year-round production of Vegetable crops particularly for off-season production of vegetables.
- Hyderabad is endowed with a tropical wet and dry climate, with a maximum temperature level of 40°C and the lowest temperature of 13°C and spread in an area of about 625 Sq.km. with an average rainfall of about 89 cms.
- The microclimate of Hyderabad is highly suitable for growing of temperate and tropical vegetables.
- Most buildings have terraces that are not used. These terraces receive a sufficient quantity of solar energy that is ideal to sustain life and propagates growth.
- The rooftops come to an area of 60,000 Sq.mts. About 50% of the area is converted into rooftop gardens most of the health disorders can be overcome.
- Vegetables play the main role in providing vitamins, minerals to the human body.
- In the view of increasing population and cost of vegetables, non- availability of backyard space for growing vegetables and mechanical city life, it is envisaged to give quality, pesticide residue-free, fresh vegetables to the city dwellers.
Telangana agriculture farming micro irrigation project
Components of Micro Irrigation are;
- Drip Irrigation for wide-spaced crops
- Drip Irrigation for closed spaced crops
- Mini & Micro Sprinklers
- Portable, Semi-Permanent and rain guns sprinklers
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