Introduction: Hello farmers, we are here with a Black gram cultivation income, yield, profit and project report for one acre farming. Black gram (VignamungoL.) is also called Urad dal/ Urid dal belongs to the family Leguminosae. Cultivation of Black gram fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil in case of increasing the soil fertility. The area under Black gram cultivation is around 3.5 million hectares in India with an average production of 1.5 to 1.9 million tonnes. Major Black gram growing states in India are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producing state in India. Black gram is used as chief ingredient in preparation of idly and dosa. Black gram is also a nutritive fodder for cattle. It is also used in preparation of curries. It is rich in phosphoric acid and excellent source of proteins and carbohydrates. Black gram also used as green manure.
A guide to Black gram cultivation income, project report, yield
It requires around 6 – 8 kilograms of seeds to cultivate in one acre. Approximately farmer can get a yield of 7- 8 quintals from one acre of Black gram field. The average market price for Black gram is Rs.4500- Rs. 6000 per quintal. Crop duration of Black gram is around 70 to 85 days and however depends upon the variety.
Black gram varieties and hybrid
- B. G-752
- B. G-20
- B. G-623
- B. G-26
- B. G-207
- U- 31
- B. G-787
Cost of Land preparation
To cultivate black gram land should be cultivated thoroughly with bullock drawn or animal drew plough. To plough one acre land for black gram cultivation it needs around Rs. 1500 on an average. Prior to ploughing land should be kept free from weeds and stubbles if any present. To remove these stubbles and weeds we need a minimum 2 labor for one acre land. If we pay Rs. 200 per head, cost for removing weeds and stubbles will be Rs.400.
Cost of black gramSeedmaterial for 1 acre
Cultivation of black gram in one acre requires a seed rate of 6 – 8 kilo grams. We can get 1 kilo gram of quality seed material at cost of Rs.80. So, to purchase 8 kilo grams farmer needsRs.640. Avoid purchasing of seed material from non-reliable resources or fake seed selling agencies.
The cost of black gram Sowing in 1 acre
To carry out sowing in one acre, 4 labors are required. One labor for operating the plough behind which seeds were sown with the help of 3 labors. So, totally sowing of black gram in one acre requires an amount of Rs.800.
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The cost of fertilizers
Application of fertilizers at the optimum level and proper time increase the yield of black gram. To cultivate black gram in one acre farmer need to apply 4 to 5 tons of farmyard manure (FYM) which costs Rs.2000 and one acre black gram requires 18 kg urea and 125 kg SSP or DAP towards which farmer has to incur Rs.950.
The cost of weeding
Immediately after sowing within 3 days chemicals like Nitrofen, basalin at 2 grams per liter need to be spray as pre emergence herbicide to achieve effective weed control during early stages of growth, to spray these herbicides we need one human labor along with chemicals. It costs Rs. 200 to pay labor and Rs. 300 to purchase chemicals. In later stages of growth, there is need for 1-2 manual weeding’s which require 6 human labors need Rs.1200.
The cost of plant protection measures
Major pests and diseases of black gram are stem fly, leafhoppers, aphids, Cercospora leaf spot, powdery mildew and yellow mosaic. To control all these pest and diseases proper preventive measures should be taken up immediately to decrease losses caused by them. Plant protection measures require Rs.2,150 for buying chemical pesticides and hiring labor for spraying.
The cost of miscellaneous activities
Miscellaneous activities in one acre black gram cultivation include costs incurred towards electricity, rent for land, interest over capital, etc. All these activities need Rs.1,600.
The cost of 1 acre black gram Harvesting
Plants were cut manually with the help of sickle. To harvest one acre black gram farmer need to employ 3 labors, so, to pay for 3 labor we need to spend Rs.600 approximately.
The cost of drying and threshing after harvesting in Black gram farming
Harvested produce will be kept for drying after which seeds were separated by beating up with the help of wooden sticks. Drying, separation of seeds and winnowing can be done with the help of 5 labors. Then to carry out all these operations Rs.1000 is required.
The yield from 1 acre Black gram farming
Cultivating black gram in one acre of land by using hybrids farmer can reap out around 7 – 8 quintals of black gram. There might be differences in yields depending upon various factors.
The cost of transportation
The farmer has to bare Rs. 420 in form of transportation charges to market his produce at nearby market.
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The total cost of 1 acre black gram farming
Cost of land preparation – Rs. 1500 + Rs. 400
Cost of seed material – Rs. 640
Cost of sowing – Rs. 800
Fertilizer cost – Rs. 2000 + Rs. 950
Cost of weeding – Rs. 200 + Rs. 300 + Rs. 1200
Cost of Plant protection – Rs. 2150
Cost of miscellaneous activities – Rs. 1600
Cost of harvesting – Rs. 600
Cost of drying and threshing – Rs.1000
Cost of transportation – Rs. 420
Cost of 1 acre black gram farming – Rs. 13, 760
Extra 10% of total cost – Rs.1376
The total cost of 1 acre black gram farming – Rs.15, 136
The total cost incurred in 1-acre black gram cultivation
On an average, the total cost of cultivation involved in one acre Black gram cultivation is Rs.15, 136. Cost involved in cultivation of Black gram may vary from above mentioned cost depending upon various factors like pest and disease incidence and weed incidence etc.
The total income from one acre black gram cultivation:The market price for Black gram dated on 25-09-2019 is Rs.5, 700 per quintal at Sadhashiv Pet market yard in Telangana. So, for selling 7 quintals of Black gram farmer will get a gross amount of Rs.39, 900.
Net profit from 1-acre black gram farming
he net income involved in 1 acre black gram cultivation is as following
Rs.39, 900– Rs. 15, 136 = Rs.24, 764
Black gram cultivation in one acre land will provide average net returns of Rs.24,764.
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Conclusion: Black gram cultivation in one acre yielding on average profits of Rs.24,764 for the farmer. It can also be cultivated as with other intercrops, in such cases we can earn extra profits apart from profits of main crop.
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