Catla Fish Farming Project Report, Rearing Economics

Introduction to Catla Fish Farming Project Report

Let us go through the Catla Fish Farming Project Report and Rearing Practices.

Catla is known as Labeo Catla. It is a freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae. It is rarely seen in brakish water. It is also known as major Indian carp. It is economically  very important fish. It is found in rivers and lakes in northern India, Bangladesh, Pakisthan and Myanmar. The fish has been sold in fresh condition and has a good value, good price and demand in the market. Up to 50 species are recorded in India. It has a higher growth rate and can adjust with other major carps, definite surface feeding habit and its preference made it popular in the pin latitude and longitude.The temperature limit is 140 C. The allocation of Catla seems to be governed by temperature enslavement rather than latitude and longitude. The minimum tolerance temperature limit is ~14°C. Catla is a eurythermal species which grows best at 25-32°C of water temperature. It grows at faster rate relatively when compared to some other carp species. It is grown in poly-culture ponds also with other carp fish species, especially with Rui and Mrigal fish. Its demand is increasing gradually.

Other names of Catla fish:

Other names of Catla are Katla, Katol, Indian Major carp, Chepti, Baudhekra, Bacha, Karakatla, and Tambra.

Characteristics of Catla fish:

  • Catalan fish has a unique look, compressed body, short, deep and has a large broad head.
  • It has a large projecting lower jaw and mouth turned up.
  • The eyes are large which are visible from the underside of the head.
  • The scales are large and grey color on the dorsal side and white belly color.
  • No upper lip and thick lower lip are present.
  • Advanced pelvic, inserted dorsal and short anal fins are present.
  • Long pectoral fins, which are extending into pelvic fins are present.
  • It can grow up to 20 kilograms of weight.
  • It can be reached around 1 meter in aged and large sized fish.

Habitat and Ecology of Catla fish:

It breeds well in natural conditions and faces difficulty in artificial conditions.  Hormonal induction has to be done to breed.  It attains maturity after 2 years.  The fish fries usually feeds on photo planktons bur adult feeds on zooplankton in addition to photo planktons. It is a mid water level as well as surface feeder. It survives at temperature ranging from 23-300 C. For breeding purposes, they move to shallow waters only  during monsoon time. It is sold when it reaches 1000 to 1500 grams weight.

Read: Fish Farming Faq.

Catla Fish Farming Practices: 

Selection of pond for growing Catla fish:

The pond or tank must be clean and filled with fresh water. In case of old pond, old water has to be drained out. The old weed and fish has to be removed. The pond needs to be dried in sunlight for several days. Disinfectant can be added to the pond before filling. Too many algal blooms and other things if present  have to be removed.  To maintain the  soil pH,  liming need to be added. The fish culture site is in easy access to be supervised.

Nutrients required and management Catla fish:

Proper nutrients have to be added to the soil irrespective of the pond, whether it is old or new. These nutrients add  the good growth of the marine plants in the water. The fish feeds on the planktons. The marine ecosystem has to be balanced. This keeps the proper oxygen flow in the water. The mixture of organic manure and fertilizers have to be added to resist soil dryness. The above things are added 15 days prior to the stocking of the fish or fingerlings in the water.

Breeding of Catla fish:

It breeds in flowing water bodies naturally. They breed in rivers, and flood plains  very well during the rainy season. It is impossible and difficult for Catla for natural breeding in artificial methods in stagnant water. Induced breeding is the only way to breed the fish. The Chinese circular hatchery method has been used effectively for induced breeding in Catla currently.  The breeding tank of 1.5 meters water depth and stocked it with brood stock at the rate of 3-5 kilograms per meter cube. Two male fish for every female fish have to be kept in the tank. These fish are equal in weight. After this, the fish have to be injected with an inducing compound and can be released in the tank. The fertilized eggs can be collected and put them in the hatching tank after 8-12 hours. It takes 64-72 hours  of hatching and incubation.

Read: Murrel Fish Farming Project Report.

Rearing of Catla fish:

Rearing of fish takes place for 15-20 days. After 2-3 months time of raising of fingerlings, they have been transferred to the main rearing area. Rearing of larvae of fish has to be done in the earthen ponds. Nursery ponds have also been used simultaneously lined with brick or cement. The pond area has to be 0.02-0.1 hectare. After 15-20 days time, the larvae have to be reared.They increase in size of 20-25 million.  3-10 million in case of earthen nursery ponds, 10-20 million per hectare in case of cement nursery ponds. Other fish species can also be stocked if there is non- availability of the pond. But the survival rate is 30-40%. Proper management and nutrition can be increased in case of nursery ponds made of cement, needs stocking of 10-20 million per hectare only for using catla fish larvae. In case of non-availability of the pond, you can also stock other fish species as well. 30-40%  larvae survives. This can be increased by using proper nutritional methods and management. The combination of oil-cake and rice bran is used for feeding purpose.

Feeding of Catla fish:

Catla fish are mid-water  and surface feeders. The young Catla feeds on both phytoplankton and zooplankton whereas mature fish feeds on zooplankton only. They fed on both natural and supplementary feeds in commercial fish farming. This usually benefit in better production. Under aquaculture systems, they are habituated in taking rice bran, mustard oil cake, wheat bran and other supplementary fish feeds.

Uses of Catla fish:

Catla fish is cultivated and bred for food purpose mainly.  It is a very important species of fish in aquaculture.  In some places, it is often named as a game fish.  It has a high rate in consumer demand.

Harvesting of Catla fish:

Generally harvesting is done by the demand of the consumers. With proper management methods of fish farming 4-5 tones of Catla fish per hectare can be obtained in one year. Catla fish has been harvested when it attains 1 kilogram or a bit more in weight according to the consumer demand. Partial dewatering or repeated netting has been used for harvesting. Sometimes, complete dewatering is needed to harvest the fish.

Packaging and Marketing of Catla fish:

In the local market, it has been sold as a fresh fish. After harvesting, fish can be sold directly to the local market. For transporting to distant places, they need to be packed well in plastic crates filled with crushed ice. This can keep the fish fresh  and  made ready for exporting. Post harvesting is not done in case of fresh fish.

Yield and scope of Catla fish:

The following methods can increase the yield

  • Using proper methods for seed production.
  • Better nutrition and health management.
  • Selecting selected species for breeding purposes.
  • In the fish farm, introducing processed fish and value added products.
  • Exporting Catla fish where there is a low production.
  • Basic hygiene and cleanliness for rearing of fish species have been maintained.

Common Diseases and Infections in Catla fish:

Catla fish suffers with many diseases. Proper care has been taken to prevent the diseases by using healthy fish for rearing.

Ulcer: It occurs due to disinfection of the pond.

  • Control:Terramycin or sulphadiazine in fish feeding.

Eye Disease: Eye, optic nerve and brain affected. Cornea of eye vascularised

  • Control: Treating the affected ponds with 0.1 ppm KMnO4 followed by 300 ppm
  • Lime.

Columnaris: Caused by Bacterium. Abdominal distension.

  • Control: Dip treatment with 500 ppm kMnO4.

Saprolegniasis: Caused by fungus. Mould grows like cotton wool on the body and penetrates into the muscles.

  • Control: 3-4% NaCl bath, KMnO4 bath for 5 days at 160 milligrams per liter for 5 days; 1-2milligrams per liter malachite green bath for 30 minutes to 1 hour; adding formalin at 20 milliliter per liter to affected ponds. 

Read: Fish Diseases, Symptoms and Control Methods.

Harvesting of Catla fish:

  • Following proper management methods of fish farming,  expect an average harvest of 4-5 tons of Catla fish per hectare in a year.
  • Indian carp, is an economically important South Asian freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae.

Cost and profit analysis of Catla fish / Economics of rearing Catla fish /Catla fish farming project report. 

Marketing and Cost calculation / hectare (2.4 acres):

Harvesting is generally done at the end of 1st year, when the fish attains average weight of 800 gm to 1 kilogram. Good organization gives a production of 4 to 5 tons in one year.

Harvesting can be done by fractional dewatering and frequent netting. In some cases complete dewatering of ponds is resorted to some farmers. Partial harvesting also depends  on the season and demand of  the fish.

Expenditure per 1 hectare

(2.4 acres)

UnitsQuantity Rate (Rs.)Cost in Rupees (approximately)
Capital cost (A)    
Site clearance and construction of the pond which includes digging and bund constructionLabour48120057,600.00
Pumps sets2 HP12000020,000.00
Store roomsSq ft5020010,000.00
Nets   10,000.00
Miscellaneous   4,000.00
 TOTAL (A)  1,01,600.00
Operational costs for one year (B)    
plaguing and drying   4,000.00
Fertilizers (Lime, Single Super Phosphate, Urea)Kgs90020.0018,000.00
Fish Seed (2000)Nos5,0005.0025,000.00
Fish FeedKg7,00010.0070,000.00
Miscellaneous   2,000.00
 Total “B”  1,19,000.00
 Total cost = “A+B”  2,20,600.00

No. of fingerlings stocked in pond per 1 hectare (2.4 acres) = 20,000 – 30,000

No. of fingerlings sustained at an average (70%) = 21,000 per year

No. of Catla in the pond  at an average = 21,000

Fish attains weight  = 1000 and above in grams

Taken average weight of fish = 1000 grams (1 kg)

Total fish weight in grams=21000000 grams= 21,000 kilograms.

Cost of 1 kilogram  Catla (whole sale price at the pond) = 60 Rupees.

Total cost of fish meat (C) = 21,000 * 60  =  12,60,000Rupees.

Catla fish net profit (C-A+B) per hectare = 12,60,000 – 2,20,600 =  Rs10,39,400.

Catla net profit per acre = 10,39,400 / 2.46 = Rs 4,22,520 (Note 1 hectare = 2.46 acres).

Note: The above mentioned calculation are just for reference, actual values may change depending on region, fish demand,  rearing practices, and pond management.

Read: Prawn Cultivation.

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