Chrysanthemum Cultivation (Shevanti) Guide:
Introduction of Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Chrysanthemum is one of the most important flower crops commercially grown in different parts of the world. This flower produces more yield under greenhouse conditions. In India, commercial cultivation of this flower has good demand. This flower has different names in different belts in India; it’s called Guldaudi in Hindi belt, Chandramalika in the eastern state, Samanti in the southern states and Shevanti in the western states. The chrysanthemum belongs to the family of “Asteracea” and genus of “Chrysanthemum L.”. Basically this flower is native to Europe and Asia. Chrysanthemum can be grown in greenhouse, poly house, shade-net, pots, containers and even backyards. Chrysanthemum flowers are mainly used for garland making, religious offerings and as cut-flower for party arrangements. When it comes to botanical description of chrysanthemum plant, the species of chrysanthemum have shallow root system with herbaceous perennial nature growing about 50 cm – 150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves and large flower heads, yellow, pink or white. As flower demand is very high in India, one should plan properly to get the flowers in the market especially in marriages and festival seasons.
Major Chrysanthemum Production States in India:- Though these flowers are grown in most of the states in India, it is commercially grown in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.
Local names for Chrysanthemum in India:- Chandramallika (Hindi), Chamanthi (Telugu), சாமந்திப்பூ (Telugu), Sevantige (Kannada),Jamanthi (Malayalam), જાપાનીઝ ફૂલછોડ (Gujarati), Sebati (Oriya),chandramukhi (Manipuri), Shevanti (Marathi), Chandramallika (Bengali), ਗੁਲਦਾਊਦੀਆਂ ਦਾ ਮੰਡੀਕਰਨ (Punjabi).
Varieties of Chrysanthemum in India:- There are many local and commercial hybrid and improved varieties available. However, it is your responsibility to find out proper high yielding cultivar suitable to local conditions. Contact local horticulture or floriculture departments for suitable variety. Here are some of the high yielding commercial varieties of chrysanthemum flower.
- Commercial Varieties: Kirti, Arka Swarna, Birbal Sahni, Shanti, Y2K, Arka Ganga,Sadbhavana, Appu, Bindiya, Coimbatore varieties, CO 1 (yellow coloured flowers), CO 2 (purple coloured flowers), MDU 1 (yellow coloured flowers) Indira and Red Gold ,Pankaj, Ajay, Sonali, Swarna, Ravi Kiran, Akash, Yellow Start, Chandrakand, Indira and Rakhee are the popular varieties.
Climate Required for Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Basically , the chrysanthemum plant is a short day plant, in other words, it requires long days for vegetative growth and short days for flowering. Light and temperature are the main factors that influence the growth of the plants and flowering. For its vegetative growth it requires long day with bright sunlight and high temperature ranging from 20 °C to 28 °C. For bud formation and flowering it requires short day and low temperature ranging from 10 °C to 28 °C. This crop requires the relative humidity of 75% to 90% which suitable for proper plant growth.
Soil Requirement in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- The best suitable soil for chrysanthemum cultivation is well-drained sandy loam good textured soils. Having good amount of organic matter will result in excellent yield. Avoid the soils where too much of water stagnation is possible. The optimal soil pH range for its growth is 6.5 to 7.5.
Land Preparation in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- The land should be prepared by giving 2 to 3 ploughings followed by harrowing to prepare the beds for planting. Supplementing the farm yard manure of 20 to 25 tonnes/ha in the last plough is recommended.
Planting Season in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Terminal cuttings of stock plants should be taken in the month of June and they should be transplanted after rooting in 15 cm pots at the end of July. These plants should be ready for pinching during end of Aug or beginning of Sept.
Propagation and Planting in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Chrysanthemum plants are propagated vegetatively through suckers, terminal cuttings or by micro-propagation.
- Suckers: In this method of propagation, after flowering, the stem should be cut back just above the ground level. This induces the formation of side suckers which should be separated from the mother plant and should be planted in sand bed. Apart from this, well rooted suckers can be directly transplanted in the field. Generally, 1,10,000 suckers should be required to cover the 1 hectare land. To protect against wilt disease, roots of the suckers should be dipped in 1 gram of emisan in one liter of water. These suckers should be planted during rainy season at 30 cm x 30 cm spacing on one side of the ridges. Pinching should be carried out once in a month after planting to induce more lateral branches on the plants.
- Terminal cuttings: These terminal cuttings should be taken from a healthy stock plant. Length of cuttings should be about 5 cm – 7 cm. The cuttings should be dipped in 2500 ppm indole butyric acid (IBA) (rooting hormone). These cuttings should be put in sand beds in shade conditions.
Manures and Fertilizers in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Chrysanthemum crop responds very well to manuring and requires about 10 to 12 tonnes of well rotten farmyard manure (FYM) per acre. This farm yard manure can be supplemented at the time of land or soil preparation. As a basal dose, apply 50 kg of ‘N’ (Nitrogen), 160 kg P2O5 and 80 kg K2O. For increasing the flower yield, spray GA3 at 50 ppm at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting. Micronutrients like foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.25% + MgSO4 0.5% can be applied. As part of biofertilizers, soil application of 2 kg each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria per ha at the time of planting should be applied. It should be mixed with 100 kg of farmyard manure (FYM) and applied.
Irrigation in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- The frequency of irrigation depends on the stage of growth, soil and weather conditions. Proper drainage system should be maintained for chrysanthemum grown both in beds and in pots. Irrigation should be carried twice a week in the first month and subsequently at weekly intervals.
Weed Control in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Weeds should be controlled or avoided for proper growth of the plants and good yields of flowers. If these flowers are grown in greenhouse, make sure to control the weeds as these weeds consume moisture and nourishment from plants. Two to three hand weeding should be carried out for proper growth of the plant. First weeding should be carried 4 weeks after planting. Good herbicide can also be applied to control weeds in greenhouse or open field or even in pots.
Pests and Diseases in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Aphids, mites, thrips, leaf miners, leaf folder, root rot, leaf spot, wilt, rust, powdery mildew, chrysanthemum stunt and chrysanthemum mosaic disease are some common pests and diseases found in chrysanthemum cultivation. For control measures of these pests and diseases, contact floriculture department.
Flowering and Harvesting in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Usually Chrysanthemum plants take 5 to 6 months from planting to flowering. It all depends on the cultivar (varieties), plant starts yielding flowers after 3 to 4 months of transplanting in the field. For cut-flower purpose, stem should be cut about 10 cm above the soil to avoid cutting into wooden tissue. The lower 1/3 of stem should be placed in water to extend the life of cut flowers. The best way to protect the flowers is to sleeve the flower bunch with a transparent plastic sleeve. The right stage for harvesting depends on the variety grown, marketing and purpose.
Post Harvesting in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Loose flowers can be packed in bamboo baskets or gunny bags for marketing. The capacity of bamboo baskets ranges from 1 to 7 kg while gunny bags can accommodate 30 to 35 kg of loose flowers.
Yield in Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Generally, flowering seasons vary from region to region. The natural blooming seasons for most of the regions lasts from July to Feb. One can harvest the flowers around 15 times. The yield can be obtained from 10 to 11 tonnes of loose flowers per acre.
Some Best Tips for Chrysanthemum Cultivation:- Here are some the tips to be followed in chrysanthemum cultivation for better yield.
- Always use disease free planting material if they are grown on larger scale.
- Crop rotation should be practiced for better yield.
- Proper pinching and disbudding should be followed for standard/spray chrysanthemum production.
- Maintain proper temperature for quality flower production.
- Use bamboo stick for the support of tender stem of the plants.
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