Introduction: Hello farmers, we are here today with cumin cultivation income, yield, perfits from 1 acre cumin crop. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum), is a herbaceous spice with medicinal values. It belongs to the family Apiaceae. Cumin is grown in Mehsana, Banaskantha and Patan districts. India produces nearly 70% of global spices. Cumin seeds have significant demand in the global market where spicy food is preferred. It is considered one of the most important spices in the world. It has many medicinal values and is known for enhancing activities like digestion, lactation, taste perception, vision, and appetite. It is also used to cure or treat diseases like vomiting, edema and diarrhea, loss of appetite, fever, puerperal disorders, and abdominal distension. In Ayurvedic medicine, dried cumin seeds are used for therapeutic purposes.
A guide Cumin cultivation income (Jeera), yield, profits
Improved and commercial varieties: These include RZ-19, RZ-209, RZ-223, RZ-345, GC-1, GC-2, GC-3, and GC-4. These are differentiated based on the maturity of Cumin seeds, resistance to weeds, oil content, withstand lodging and shattering, volatile oil content, tolerance to wilt, and yield per acre.
Sutiable soil and climate for cumin farming
Soils with high fertility and plenty of organic matter along with sandy loam to medium-heavy soils are ideal for Cumin cultivation. It is successfully cultivated in the moderately cool and dry season that is during Rabi season. Care should be taken that the area should be free from frosting and humidity during the flowering stage. Cloudy weather during the flowering stage attracts pests and insects resulting in a decrease in the yield and poor quality.
How to sow cumin seeds:
Cumin seeds are sown in November during the first week or in the last weeks. The seed rate ranges from 2-4 Kg per acre. The distance between the rows should be 25 cm and the distance between plant to plant should be 10 cm is ideal for Cumin crop cultivation. Seeds should be sown at a depth of 1-1.3 cm and care should be taken that it should not exceed the depth deeper than 1.5 cm.
Manures and fertilizers
The soil should be rich in organic matter and fertility. For better yield, it should be ploughed thoroughly by mixing 4 tons of FYM per acre or compost of 2 tons per acre. The NPK ratio should be 12:8:8 Kg per acre. This should be given in two equal doses.
Irrigation requirement of cumin crop
This depends upon the weather conditions and soil characteristics. First irrigation should be given after sowing the seeds and the second during germination i.e. 7-10 days after sowing. Generally, Cumin crops require irrigation at an interval of 20-25 days which gives better results that come up to 4-6 irrigations. The sprinkler method is best suited and beneficial.
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Pests and disease management of cumin plants
Aphids can be controlled by spraying Neemarin at 1% for 7 days. and also by applying neem seed kernel extract 5% for 15 days. Other pests like thrips can be minimized by spraying or using mustard cake 1%. Few varieties like RZ-223 and GC-4 are resistant to Fusarium wilt. Other diseases can be controlled by spraying Carbendazim 2g per Kg. Seed treatment with carbendazim, thiram, captan at 2.5-3g per Kg yields better results and will also show resistance towards diseases. Blight can be controlled by spraying 0.2% of Dithane-M-45 Dithane Z-78, Carbendazin- 0.1%, it has to be done 4 times per 10 days interval. Powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying Dinocap 0.1%, tridemorph 0.05% and wet table sulphur 0.2% are effective.
When and how to harvest Cumin seeds
Harvesting time ranges based on the variety chosen generally from 110-120 days after sowing. It is done in the first week of March if the seeds are sown in November. Seeds are harvested by beating the stems on the clean floor or it can also be done by a Cumin threshing machine.
The yield of Cumin seeds per acre
Cumin seeds reach maturity at 110 to 120 days and yields up to 5-8 quintals per acre.
Note: This yield is based on the farmer’s selection of the improved variety and maintains the proper soil, irrigation, manures and fertilizers, climatic conditions, disease control methods, etc.
Cumin seeds processing technologies
Cumin seeds have to be dried till it attains brown color. For oil extraction, steam distillation is used depending upon the variety and area of cultivation. Cumin seeds are processed to get products like essential oils, oleoresins, cumin powder, etc.
Costs involved in Cumin cultivation per 1 acre
Land preparation = Rs. 5,000
Seed cost= Rs. 3,000
Manures = Rs. 5,000
Fertilizers= Rs. 3,000
Plant protection= Rs. 5,000
Irrigation = Rs. 5,000
Labour Charges = Rs. 15,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs. 5,000
Packaging materials = Rs. 3,000
10% of total cost = Rs. 4,900
Total cost = Rs. 53,900
Cumin cultivation income returns
Farm gate price of 1 Kg of Cumin seeds = Rs. 140 per Kg, which is purely based on the variety of Cumin crops which the farmer has chosen.
For 1 quintal the Farm gate price = 140 x 100 = Rs. 14,000 per quintal. So the income for the average yield of 6 quintals = 6 x 14,000 = Rs. 84,000
Profit = Income – costs involved = Rs.84,000 – Rs.53,900 = Rs. 30,100. Hence the profit is Rs. 30,100 per 1 acre.
Note: The profit may vary based on the yield and variety chosen which are also resistant to a few diseases that minimize the plant protection costs. The yield also increases in few varieties like GC-1, GC-2, GC-3 and especially GC-4 which is 9 quintals per acre.
The Cumin cultivation is more profitable as it involves fewer labor charges, fertilizers, manures, plant protection costs, irrigation, and harvesting costs. Cumin seeds have the highest demand in the local and international markets hence the production of Cumin seeds is beneficiary to farmers, if they follow the proper cultivation guidelines and strategies along with soil properties, fertility, etc. Along with this intercropping of coriander, green gram, pearl millet, cluster beans can be done which also adds little investment but the income on this yield will be more and adds to the income of Cumin. Then the average profit may increase up to Rs. 60,000 to Rs.70,000 upon intercropping along with Cumin cultivation. That’s all folks, hope you have enjoyed reading the cumin cultivation income report. Happy farming!.
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