Introduction on how to start Goat Farming in Maharashtra: Goat farming in Maharashtra is a very profitable business with minimum investment. Usually, goats are multi-functional animals that mean they produce milk, meat, fiber, and manure, etc. In Maharashtra, goat plays an important role in providing nutritive food to families. Goats have been considered very useful animals. Goat’s success is related to its excellent adaptability to the difficult mountain conditions, extreme weather conditions and low-value feed acceptance, versatile habits, and high production considering their size. These are some important reasons because goats are among the first animals to be domesticated. In this article we also discuss the below topics about goat farming in Maharashtra;
- How can I get a subsidy for goat farming
- Which goat is best for goat farming in Maharashtra
- Is goat farming profitable in Maharashtra
- What type of shelter is required to raise goats
- How much land is sufficient to raise goats
- Which breed of goat is most profitable in Maharashtra
- A government scheme for goat farming in Maharashtra
- How much milk does a goat produce daily
A Guide On How To Start Goat Farming In Maharashtra, Goat Breeds, Subsidy Schemes
Maharashtra is an agriculture-dominated state so goat farming plays a major role due to the availability of green and dry fodder; and also helps a farmer in income generation. Commercial goat farms in Maharashtra have emerged in providing substantial income to the farmers. However, goat meat is a great source of consumable meat which is tasty, nutritious, and healthy. Also, goat’s wool is used for several purposes and its skin plays a crucial role in the leather industry. Goat farming in Maharashtra is a profitable business. Goats are reared in Maharashtra by three methods Extensive, Semi-Intensive, or Intensive (commercial) method.
There are varying situations of individual farmers wherein the goat farming business is a chief occupation among the farmers in Maharashtra. Goats can live in a limited area of grazing and it is the major role of semi-intensive goat farming in Maharashtra. Maharashtra has a typical monsoon climate with hot, rainy, and cold weather conditions. Temperature varies between 22 to 39°C, which is good for goat farming many breeds can be rear with the local breed in Maharashtra. Goat housing is to keep the animals as much as possible under the thermal comfort zone so that productivity will be optimum and another main reason to protect from predator attack. The housing shelter is to make keeping in view the number of goats that need to be housed. The milk production largely depends on the breed of the goat, on average; a goat gives 2 to 3 liter of milk.
Is Goat Farming Profitable in Maharashtra?
Goats are raised for many different products such as milk, meat skin, and fiber, etc. Both meat and milk of goats are tasty, nutritious, and considered good for human health. Goats are among the main meat-producing animals in several countries. It has become a profitable business and requires a very low investment.
Goat farming in Maharashtra is developing day by day because it needs low initial investment and profit ranges high. It is a profitable business and there is a huge demand for goat meat in Maharashtra. The goat meat price is 700 Rs per kg metro cities of Maharashtra and 550 to 600 Rupees in other 2 and 3 tier cities. There are approximately 60% meat-eaters in Maharashtra.
Best Location for Goat Farming in Maharashtra
Find the correct location is the first and most important point for starting goat farming. Though, common goats survive in warm areas that are well-drained. Besides temperature, space is also necessary for goats. A large field is required if you want your animals to roam freely. Such goats have better resistance to sickness and infection.
The best location is far from towns as urban pollution is dangerous to animal health. Usually, a goat eats a lot of grass daily. So, one should make sure their food source is highly accessible and not too far from the rearing area.
Shelter and Fencing Requirements for Goat Farming
Generally, goats need a simple shelter for protection from rain, snow, and the sun. Then, you can allow the kids to nurse from their moms or hand-raise them. Carefully make 4 sided and draft-free shelters for does and kids. These are some important steps for set-up a goat farm and making it suitable for your goats. Carefully follow the steps and always take good care of your goats. Therefore, you can make your goat farming is a highly profitable business.
Goat shelters do not need to be expensive. Select four-sided shelters that protect the goats from wind and precipitation are adequate. Greenhouse barns, calf hutches, and large boxes provide sufficient shelter for goats. Straw, shredded paper, and corn cobs can also be used as bedding. Goats need 15 square feet of bedded area per goat to be more comfortable and goats like to sleep with their heads uphill and take delight in sleeping on raised areas.
Goats are excellent escape artists and they always tend to escape from the farm. For preventing them from escaping, and you have to make a strong fence around your goat farm. Make the fence suitable enough for keeping goats safe inside, and strong enough for keeping all types of predators or harmful animals outside. Though woven wire topped with board and electric fencing are suitable to keep goats in and predators out. But they are expensive, and electric fencing is not suggested for goats. You can use barbed wire for goats, and it is less expensive compared to others.
Advantages of Goat Farming in Maharashtra
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- There are numerous benefits or advantages of the goat farming business. Goats are smaller-sized animals and they require less care.
- Maharashtra is an agriculture-dominated state and it is a part of income generation in the goat farming business. Many people of Maharashtra sell manure throughout the country.
- Goat products have good demand in the market; low operating cost, and availability of many quality goat breeds are the main benefits of the goat farming business. The initial investment required for goat farming is low.
- Goats are smaller-sized animals, and they require less space as compared to many other domestic livestock animals. Goats have fewer housing demands, and they can do well with minimum facilities inside the house.
- The indigenous goat breed of Maharashtra has higher reproduction rates and no religious taboos against goat meat consumption in Maharashtra.
- Goat needs low housing requirements compared to cattle. The goat farming business plays a major role in income generation, capital storage, and rural development in Maharashtra.
- Due to their small body size and docile nature, housing requirements and management problems with goats are less.
- Goats are friendly animals. Also, in addition, goat meat is lean meat and has lower cholesterol content.
- The initial investment required for a goat farming business is much low than dairy farming.
- Goats can tolerate bitter taste to a greater extent compared to other animals. Therefore, they consume almost every type of plant that is not eaten by other animals. Goats are careful eaters they can live in almost all types of climatic conditions.
- Goat manure is excellent organic manure and it has high demand in organic farming.
- Goats are strong and hardy animals. They are capable of surviving in poor conditions compared to other animals. They are capable of resisting many common goat diseases and problems.
- Goats start giving milk at the age of 16-17 months.
- Goats can improve and maintain grazing land and reduce bush encroachment (biological control) without causing harm to the environment under proper management.
- Goat creates employment for the rural poor by utilizing unpaid family labor.
Housing and Feeding Management for Goat Framing in Maharashtra
A goat house is to protect the animal from sun, wind, and rain. The house should be built at an elevation so that it does not suffer from problems of waterlogging. Locally available materials like elephant grass, paddy straw, bamboo, and wood, etc., are used for the construction of houses. No elaborate housing arrangements are needed for small units and the goat sheds must have a good amount of ventilation. In the case of group housing for goats a space of 1.8 sq. mt. per doe should be provided while a floor space of 2.4 sq. mt. must be provided for the bucks. An area of about 1.8 X 1.8 sq. mt. is sufficient for 10 kids. Though, overstocking must be avoided as it results in cramped up spaces and suffocation. Sick animals should be quarantined immediately since diseases spread very easily among goats.
Depending upon the land quality, it requires around 1.5 acres of low-quality land to raise 2 to 4 goats. Around 1.5 to 2 acres of land is enough to sustain 6 to 8 goats in the high-yielding area. Goats are very choosy with food and they don’t eat dried or soiled grass. You should make sure to have enough clean, fresh grass for them so they don’t go hungry. Generally, goats prefer to eat grasses, shrubs plants, weeds, and herbs. Also, goats need energy, vitamins, and water for proper growth. A well-designed house will help you to reap all the profit from goat farming. Always keep the house neat, clean, and also dry. Arrange proper ventilation and drainage system is also important for the goat farmhouse.
Goats are stronger and hence can withstand all types of weather conditions. The goats must be provided with leguminous fodder in addition to grains like pulses, wheat, and maize, etc. They prefer fodder of leguminous crops to straw or maize silage. Also, they need feed composed of at least 14 to 15% protein along with high mineral composition like iodized salt, bone meal, zinc oxide, ferrous carbonate, high-grade limestone, copper sulphate, and vitamins. Each goat consumes about 5 to 7 Kg of green fodder and a liter of water per day. Approximately, an acre of fodder is sufficient to feed 35 goats.
Promoting Dual Purpose Goat Breeds (For Meat and Milk Production) in Maharashtra
MAFSU (Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University), State Agriculture Universities (S.A.U.), and Punyashlok Ahilyadevi Sheli Mendhi Vikas Mahamandal, Pune will put in cohesive efforts for the propagation of dual-purpose goat breeds. For genetic growth in goats, on a priority basis, superior indigenous genetic material will be used. Besides, the use of improved/exotic germplasm will be permitted in consonance with the approved policy of the Government of India in context to import of genetic material. Thus, breeding of selected elite milker goats will be undertaken on SAUs and MAFSU. Though, alternative possible use of goat milk in consideration of its medicinal value will also be explored.
State Breeding Policy for Goat
At the same time, goat milk is very important in the rural economy. This will act as an added impetus to make rural goat farming more sustainable. Therefore, on this background desired genetic improvement amongst the goat population will help in reaping the benefits of dual-purpose breeds through the use of identified breeds.
The main purpose will be given to selective breeding of the local indigenous goat breeds like Osmanabadi and Sangamneri. Exotic or Indigenous dual-purpose goat breeds with twinning traits will also be considered for improvement of nondescript goats through either importation or locally fetching suitable material on an experimental basis.
Goat Breeds in Maharashtra
Osmanabadi, Sangamneri, Kokan Kanyal, and Berari are the predominant goat breeds in Maharashtra.
These goat breeds are native to the Konkan region of Maharashtra. These goats are mainly black color with a white color marking in a specific pattern–the ventral surface of the body is white. These have bilateral white strips from nostrils to ears; and flat, long drooping ears; white muzzle, and long legs.
In Maharashtra, the goat breed name derives from the Sangamner Tehsil of Ahmednagar District. They are medium-sized animals and the coat is completely white with mixtures of black and brown. Sangamneri goat is the local breed and best suitable for goat farming in Maharashtra found in Ahmednagar, Nasik, and Pune. It is medium size goat and the average weight of the adult male is about 35 to 40 kg. The ears are pendulous, and the horns are twisted and it is a dual-purpose goat breed for milk and meat. The lactation period of the goat is about 120 days.
Osmanabadi goats are large in size and the coat color varies, but is mostly black (73%), with the rest being white, brown, or spotted. 90% of males are horned; females may be horned or polled. Osmanabadi goat breed is useful for both meat and milk production. Average daily milk yield changes from 0.5 to 1.5 kg for a lactation length of 4 months. Generally, Osmanabadi goats are raised mainly for meat production. Approximately, the average weight of an adult male is 40 to 45 kg in stall feeding. Osmanabadi goat breed is largely used for goat farming in Maharashtra. This breed produces more kids in each gestation period.
Berari is mainly reared for meat purposes in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. Berari goats are medium-sized animals. They are predominantly brown and blackish-brown with glossy hair. Its population has not undergone any recent bottleneck. The genetic variability exhibited by these goats can be exploited for their genetic improvement and sustainable conservation.
Some other goat breeds in Maharashtra are Jamunapari goat breed, Jakhrana goat breed, Malabari goat breed, Sirohi, Sojat, Jakhrana, Malabari, Boer goat, Gohilawadi, Sannen, and Kutchi goat breed.
Care and Management for Goat Framing in Maharashtra
Goats do not need elaborate shelter arrangements for keeping. Some basic facilities are adequate to feed, water, and hygiene is sufficient for goats. Though, during rain or winter, some basic protection is required.
The sheds should be washed thoroughly and disinfected at least once a month. The food and water managers should be cleaned regularly. Goats are prone to endoparasite infection. Hence deworming must be done once every 6 months. Kids are dewormed every month though does are dewormed just before breeding. To avoid lice, ticks, and mites, etc., the goats must be sprayed with ectoparasitic drugs like acaricides regularly. Vaccinations against diseases like goat pox, and plague, etc. must be done periodically. Zoonotic diseases like salmonellosis, brucellosis, etc., should be prevented since they are infectious and spread easily. Sick goats should be isolated as soon as the infection is detected and timely medication must be administered.
Always try to take proper care of goats and never feed them contaminated food. Keep goat house as neat and clean as possible. It is remembered; keep the kids with their mother for several weeks after their birth. Artificial insemination is a good way for breeding yours does. Vaccinate them on a timely basis, to keep them free from all diseases and health problems. Keep a stock of some important vaccines and medicines.
The health issues of goats in the Maharashtra region are Internal Parasites, External parasites, Foot and Mouth Disease, Diarrhea, Pneumonia, and contagious Ecthyma. All the above diseases are treatable the vaccination and medicines are available in the market.
Care and management tips for raising goats;
- Ensure that they have access to clean water and carefully following a vaccination program against common diseases
- Check that the internal and external parasites are under control
- Carefully keeping sick goats separate so that disease does not spread to healthy goats
- And, making sure that any goats introduced to the flock are disease-free
- Sheltering goats from adverse weather
Many types of viral diseases in goats like PPR, goat pox, foot and mouth diseases, and bacterial diseases like anthrax, and brucellosis, etc. are very harmful to goats. Therefore, proper vaccination is a must to prevent these types of diseases. The does who were not vaccinated PPR, goat pox; brucellosis vaccines previously, vaccinate them at the 5th month of gestation period. You should vaccinate the kid’s PPR vaccine when they reach 5 months of age.
Economics of Goat Farming in Maharashtra
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Maharashtra ranks 6th position in the goat population in India and nearly 8.44 million goats are in Maharashtra. Few farmers practice modern intensive goat production systems and benefited from the latest technologies like high yield breed, modern irrigation system, mechanization, and readymade animal feed. Farmers manage to sell the goats at a good price and gain good profits. Also, goats are readily cashable at any time. Their adaptation to stall-fed conditions and the manure quality of their voidings add to their popularity among the Maharashtra farmers.
Goat Farming Subsidy in Maharashtra
Goat farming requires a respectful amount of funds to start as a business. The government of India sanctions 200 crores rupees every year in the financial budget for rural development and farmer welfare, anyone can take the benefit of it. The method is quite simple you have to apply for the loan in any nationalize bank like the state bank of India and bank of India etc. before the financial year. You can take the benefit in the form of a subsidy which is provided by the National Bank for agriculture and rural development (NABARD). Several Goat farms in Maharashtra are taking the benefits of government subsidies.
The climate condition is good for goat rearing in Maharashtra. Now goat farming business doesn’t remain goat farming it became an enterprise. In Maharashtra, many entrepreneurs came forward to this business and becoming successful in less time. Also, it became a full-time business for people who think differently. The goat farming business in Maharashtra has a huge potential to grow and also make a profit easily. Goat farming is mainly considered an important agricultural activity in Maharashtra especially in arid and semi-arid areas where pastureland is available and low intensive systems are present.
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development’s (NABARD’s) prime focus regarding goat farming business is to support small and medium farmers to enhance the production of livestock farming that shall eventually result in increased employment opportunities.
NABARD offers goat farming loans with the help of some financial institutions like;
- Commercial Banks
- Regional Rural Banks
- State Cooperative Banks
- Urban Banks
- Other financial entities that are eligible for refinancing from NABARD
As per NABARD’s scheme, people falling under the poverty line, SC/ST category shall get 33% subsidy on goat farming business. And, other groups of people under the OBC category and general category shall get a 25% subsidy of a maximum of Rs. 2.5 lakh.
Marketing Strategies for Goat Meat in Maharashtra
It will be based on designing, promoting, and encouraging Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC market) like trade models in private, co-operative as well as corporate sectors, ensuring the trade of goats to make the remunerative price to the producers ensuring reasonable price to the buyers.
- Make sure availability of clean and hygienic meat to the consumers and safeguarding public health.
- Ensuring adoption of the desired bio waste disposal management associated with present practices of wet slaughter.
- Ensure marketing strategy is in place and for its effective implementation as well as for gaining export-competitiveness, a suitable system will be put in place in due course of time.
- The establishment of modern and ISO standard small ruminant slaughterhouses will be promoted under Public-Private Partnership Model (PPP model) in the metros for ensuring the development of the goat meat industry ascertaining end-to-end solutions for clean and hygienic meat availability to the society.