Introduction of How to Enhance Reproduction In Dairy Cattles
The following information is all about How to Enhance Reproduction in Dairy cattles.
Reproduction is the term associated with the entire process of delivering new calves over a certain period of time. The efficiency of reproduction in cattle depends on a multitude of factors such as physiologic, nutritional, genetic and disease issues. The research data on cattle farming indicates that over the years the reproductive efficiency of dairy has declined at a faster rate. Reproduction depends on two major factors, i.e. the genetic and external factors. The genetic related pattern indicates the oestrus cycle, behaviour, length of breeding, ovulation rate, inter calving period etc. External factors include heat stress, feed management etc. The external factors are under the control of the farm owner or the individual, but the genetic issues regarding reproduction have to be addressed to improve efficiency.
Oestrus cycle and calving
The phase during which the female is in heat or is receptive for reproduction is called the oestrus cycle or the heat cycle. The most important sign of the oestrus cycle in dairy cattle is frequent urination, but there is a possibility of other symptoms to show the beginning of the oestrus cycle in cattle and buffaloes such as:
- Standing position
- Mounting other cattle
- Vulva producing stingy mucous
- Lower milk yield
- Less intake of feed
- Frequent bellowing
- Raising the tail
- Vulval oedema
Reason for infertility
Generally, 10-30% of lactation is affected by infertility and reproductive disorders. The fertility rate depends on the feeding and health of dairy cattle. The major reasons for infertility could be complex, but some reasons are malnutrition, congenital defects, improper management, hormonal imbalances etc. The animals on the farm should be closely monitored each day to detect the oestrus cycle. Some tips to avoid the problem of infertility are:
- Breeding the cattle exactly during the oestrus cycle/period.
- If there is any problem in the oestrus cycle, then it should be detected and treated.
- The animals should be de-wormed once in 6 months.
- The animals on the farm should be fed a proper balanced and nutritious diet.
- The female cattle or animals should be provided with good nutrition and should be facilitated with the required facilities to maintain proper body temperature and weight.
- The selection of the breed is extremely important to avoid congenital defects and infections.
- Proper hygiene has to be maintained so as to avoid infections of the uterus.
- Proper medical attention has to be given through a qualified vet during the insemination period.
- The next breeding cycle can be started after 4 months of delivery.
Technology for improving reproductive efficiency in cattle
There are some advanced technological services like administering hormones and other compounds to increase the efficiency of reproduction in animals. The technologies are:
- Ovsynch and presynch
- Early pregnancy detection and resynchronization
- Embryo transfer
- Estrus synchronization, resynchronization and treatment of cystic ovarian diseases
Read this: Dairy Farm Requirements.
This is one of the most important technologies for improving the efficiency of reproduction in dairy animals. This technology is important in a country like India because the availability of quality male cattle is inadequate and is a major hurdle for new cattle development.
The process of collecting the sperm from a male cattle or bull, processing, storing it carefully and then introducing this into the female cattle reproductive system through a manual mechanism or artificially at a specified time for the purpose of breeding is called artificial insemination. This process is considered to be the most efficient ways of improving the efficiency of reproduction in animals and also the profitability of the farm. The biggest advantage of using this mechanism is that one can obtain the sperm of superior quality bulls from far off locations. Some advantages of artificial insemination over natural ways are:
- Improves bull usage efficiency.
- Cost-effective solution.
- Check the transmission of diseases.
- Helps improve breeding efficiency.
- The progeny can be tested at an early age.
- The semen of the superior quality bull can be preserved for later use.
- The animals of different origin can be used in this process without injuring them.
- Enhanced rate of conception.
- Artificial insemination when combined with synchronization programmes can result in uniform and consistent calf production.
Reproductive characteristics of dairy cattle
|Stages of reproduction
|Age at puberty
|10-24 months – cattle
15-36 months – buffaloes
|Length of Oestrus cycle
|14-29 days – cattle
18-22 days – buffaloes
|Sign of oestrus
|12-30 hours – cattle
17-24 hours – buffaloes
|Length of gestation period
|278-293 days – cattle
305-330 days for buffaloes
|Age at calving
|24-36 months –cattle
36-56 months – buffaloes
|Interval between calving
|12-14 months –cattle
15-21 months – buffaloes
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