Introduction to livestock farming in Nigeria, business plan and livestock loan: Livestock farming is defined as the process of breeding animals for the sole purpose of consumption. Another name for livestock farming is Animal husbandry. It is a profitable business in Nigeria. Poultry farming in Nigeria is the king of livestock farming, that everybody eats poultry products; even if you don’t some people need the dung from this poultry for their crops farming. Livestock farming provides employment opportunities to numerous Nigerians. The livestock farming sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries such as Nigeria, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing livestock products demand. The majority of the animals are reportedly raised in free-range systems.
The specific objectives of livestock farming in Nigeria’s are;
- Access the socioeconomic characteristics of livestock farmers in the area;
- Find the challenges of livestock production in Nigeria; and
- Decide the economic impact of livestock production in Nigeria
There are several things that you can profit from your livestock farm. You can harvest and then sell eggs, meat, feathers, dung for manure, and chicken dung for fish feed. Chicken farming stands as the most profitable business in Nigeria. Maintaining a cattle farm and other environmental factors such as overgrazing can make your business hard to control and greatly reduce your profit margin. That aside there is a lot of money in the cattle farming business. If you need quick money from your livestock business, then starting a cattle farm is the best option for you. Aside from rearing livestock for meat, you can also rear your livestock animals for milk, leather, manure, ivory, and research. It’s not a must that your farm only have a cow, you can also rear other animals like horses, goats, sheep, pigs, and donkeys in your cattle farm. Livestock products in the future could be moderated by socio-economic factors.
Why Livestock Farming?:Livestock farming refers to animals that are domesticated primarily for food. The common livestock animals are Poultry birds in Nigeria like Chicken, Turkey, Quail, and Duck, Small ruminants (Goats, Sheep), Cattle, Pigs, Rabbits, and in some parts of the northern region of Nigeria, Donkeys, Camels, and Horses.
You can do very profitable livestock farming in Nigeria. Livestock farming is the future of the economic sector is very bright. Livestock farming in Nigeria includes pigs, snails, cattle, goats, rabbits, and chickens, etc. It is a profitable industry, and its development depends on two major factors like raw materials and technologies used in the production. The farming sector in Nigeria is controlled by small-time farmers in rural areas and there’s a possibility of making millions of dollars every year. Livestock farming in Nigeria is one of the major sources of food for man. Also, the farming sector creates more job opportunities and develops the Nigerian market economy.
A guide to start livestock farming in nigeria,business Plan,livestock loan in nigeria
As long as humans exist, there will always need for food and the two major food sources for mankind are crops and animals. Nigerian community mainly depends on meat, especially from cows and chickens. Meat is a very important part of daily meals in Nigeria. There are certain attributes that successful livestock farmers have in common because livestock farming is a profitable business; it can also be hard, and capital, and labor-intensive.
Characteristics of livestock farming in Nigeria
Well-developed livestock farming businesses possess the following characteristics;
- Good businesses provide livestock and livestock products that the consumers want and are ready to pay for.
- It must provide a wide variety of products to consumers so that they may easily choose for themselves.
- No harmful products must be offered for sale in the market, precautions should be taken to protect consumers.
- Information on the presence of products in the market and their relative merits must be available to all prospective consumers.
- For all categories of consumers, prices must be fair and uniform for the products.
Importance and benefits of livestock farming in Nigeria
- It generates high-quality food products. Other local economic sectors benefit from its activities like food processing industries, handicrafts, tourism, and hospitality.
- It occupies a prominent place among the primary activities of the world economy.
- It is one of the few human productive economic actions that are truly sustainable.
- It makes employment opportunities and serves as a source of income.
- Bigger livestock animals can be used for some special farm operations.
- Livestock production contributes to environmental sustainability through the conversion of human-unusable energy into highly nutritious animal-source foods.
- It includes all domestic animals which are meant for human welfare.
- It mainly includes primary activities of rearing all kinds of animals for food and other uses.
- It includes all operations like the movement of animals, raw materials, and the effect of such operation on livestock farmers, butchers, and consumers.
- Livestock farming comprises all activities involved in the procurements of all inputs by livestock producers and the movement of livestock and its products from livestock farmers to consumers.
- It is the link between livestock farmers and non-farm sectors.
Different livestock products in Nigeria
Livestock is used by Nigerians for different purposes, many of which have an economic value. Livestock products include;
- Meat – Meat is useful in to form of dietary protein and energy.
- Dairy products – Mammalian livestock can be used as a source of milk, which can in turn easily be processed into other dairy products like yogurt, cheese, butter, ice cream, kefir, and kumis.
- Clothing and adornment – The livestock sector produces a range of fiber textiles.
- Fertilizer – Animal manure can be spread on fields to increase crop yields.
- Labor – The muscles of animals like horses, donkeys, and yaks can be used to provide mechanical work.
- Land management – The grazing of livestock is used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth.
- Conservation – Raising livestock animals to conserve a rare breed can be achieved through gene banking and breeding programs.
Steps to start livestock farming in Nigeria
If you want to start livestock farming in Nigeria, follow these steps to make the process easy.
1. Decide on the animal to rear
You are going to rear some poultry birds. The first step in livestock farming is to select the type of animal to rear. Before you do that, you have to understand some things like their advantages and disadvantages, cost of starting, and profitability. Here’s what you know about each type of livestock farming. Some livestock farming in Nigeria are;
- Poultry farming
- Pig farming
- Snail farming
- Cattle farming
- Goat farming
- Rabbit farming
2. Put together the necessities
The next thing you want to do is to start putting together all the requirements you want to start. Irrespective of the livestock farm type you want to do, you would need the following;
- Land/housing – You need to get land that would be able to contain the amount of livestock you want to rear. Maybe housing with lots of grass, or a pen or hen house. It all depends on the type of livestock animal you want to rear.
- Maintenance equipment – Some maintenance equipment are feeders, drinkers, water troughs, etc. Also, you need to put together all the other tools you need to run your farm effectively.
- The breeds – You want to buy the best breed of livestock to start your farm with.
- Feed – Feed is important for the sustenance of your livestock farm and that also includes clean water.
- Manpower – You want to employ the necessary labor to run your farm effectively.
- Expertise – Depending on your scale of production, you must do well to consult with experts like veterinary doctors, etc.
3. Learn and network
It is important to expand your knowledge of your business by attending training, taking courses, and joining relevant associations that would boost the growth of your livestock business.
4. Poultry farm loan in Nigeria
One of the most profitable agricultural business loans is the poultry farm loan in Nigeria. However, this livestock business type does not come easy. The procedure involves huge capital which is why it’s on the list of farming that can be considered for grants. The grant is called a poultry farm loan in Nigeria.
5. Livestock diseases
The painful and complicated problem to deal with is livestock diseases. Due to different circumstances, including climate conditions, economic, and infrastructure conditions, these livestock diseases will not disappear shortly. If your livestock animals get sick, then it will cost a lot of money for you to get them treated. You have to take them for proper vaccinations and proper care.
Poultry farming in Nigeria
In the Nigerian agriculture sector, poultry Farming in Nigeria is one of the most profitable businesses. Chickens are more common than other poultry birds in Nigeria. They are of different categories ranging from layers, broilers, and noilers. Mostly, the broilers are used for meat production while the layers are for egg production. The major poultry breeds in Nigeria are the Arbor Acre Plus, Cornish Cross, Cobb, Bovans Black, Marshall, K-22 Moyer, and the Cornish Giants.
The intensive poultry system is a market-oriented production with high bird numbers of more than 2,000 birds. Around 21% of chickens in Nigeria are raised in commercial or integrated farms. All other forms of livestock animals are found throughout the country. Although pigeons, ducks, guinea fowl, and some turkeys are widely kept, chickens are by far the most common. Livestock animals are maintained under traditional, low-input, and free-range systems of management.
The poultry management systems in Nigeria are;
- In the free-range system, birds are raised mainly for household consumption. Then, they are allowed to roam freely around the neighborhood in search of food and water. The free-range system is more common in remote rural communities.
- The semi-intensive system is a common system among small-scale poultry farmers. This semi-intensive system of poultry rearing is partly free-range and partly intensive type.
- In the intensive system, birds are confined to cages or houses. In this system, adequate feed, water, health services are provided for birds. Then, it is subdivided into deep-litter and battery cage systems. Due to the efficiency of this system, it is common in the southern regions of the country, where commercial poultry production is on a meteoric rise.
- Eggs and meat are major sources of nutritional protein in an average Nigerian home. By-products like feathers are used in some communities for cultural and beautification purposes and their manure is widely preferred for use as organic fertilizers in crop production.
Snail farming in Nigeria
Snail farming in Nigeria is a popular business mainly for its delicious taste. For its unique taste and nutrition value, the snail has a huge demand in the Nigerian market. Snails also have huge global popularity. You have to place the snail house in a wind-protected environment, for preventing the snails from losing water from their body quickly. Nigeria’s environment is perfect for snail farming.
The shell of the snail is calcium and they derive most of the calcium from the soil. Since it is so good for your health, the Nigerian government plans to promote the snail farming business and involve more farmers in the business. Due to the high demand in foreign countries, it will be extremely profitable to export snail meat abroad.
Rabbit farming in Nigeria
Rabbit farming is also known as cuniculture. It has gradually gained prominence in Nigeria over the years. When it comes to the rabbit farming business, there is no need to worry about too many requirements. This kind of farming has a good future and is good to focus on. Though, you do not have to only focus on rabbit meat production. Also, you can concentrate on leather and fur production. Always you can get a good profit from rabbit farming business.
Goat farming in Nigeria
Goat farming requires low capital but yields high profits. Goat farming is dominated in the northern parts of Nigeria. Though, there are many small hold goat farms in rural areas of Nigeria. In many parts of the world, goat is raised for meat, milk, wool, and leather production. Goat farming is a licensed livestock business that is for meat processing in Nigeria. Also, we will produce related raw materials for industries in commercial quantities.
In case if you miss this: Aquaculture In The Philipines.
There are three main breeds of goats in Nigeria and they are the West African Dwarf (WAD), Sokoto Red/Maradi, and the Sahel. West African Dwarf breed is more common in southern Nigeria while Sokoto Red and Sahel are more in the northern regions of the country. They are raised for mutton (meat) and milk. Foreign breeds like the Boer and the Kalahari are bred by institutions and ranches solely for research purposes. The Kalahari goat breed is adapted to Nigeria’s ecological zones on experimental efforts.
Cattle farming in Nigeria
The cattle farming business involves the rearing of cattle breeds for commercial purposes. It is a profitable business that anyone can get into and make money. Cattle mainly refer to a group of one or more cows, or bulls, or a mix of both. A cow is the female animal breed while the male is called the bull. The cattle breeds in Nigeria are the Nigerian Savanna Muturu, Biu, White Fulani, Borgou, Sokoto, Ngaundere, Yola, Ketuku, Djali, Azaouak, Kuri, Nigerian Forest Muturu, Red Fulani, Shuwa, and Banyo. Cattle come in varying kinds; some cattle breeds grow big in a very short while; such cattle breeds are better reared for their meat and the accessories embedded in their body. Some cattle breeds in Nigeria are more suitable for milk production.
How About This:
The prospects of cattle rearing in Nigeria;
The meat-consuming population of Nigeria is large, and the number of cattle within the Nigerian shores is not enough to sustain the meat consumption capacity of the Nigerian nation. Therefore, tells that anyone that cattle rearing holds a lot of prospects for people who engage in them, mainly in Nigeria.
The cattle skin is used to make a lot of value-giving products in Nigeria. Some regions of the Nigerian community use the skin of cattle to make shoes, and other leather wears. Some female cattle breeds produce a lot of milk, and so they are raised mainly for their milking prowesses, and this is another valuable part of the cattle rearing field.
Draught cattle breed is used in Northern Nigeria for labor work on farms and lands. During the dry season when land clearing is ongoing in preparation for the planting season; and draught cattle are used to make ridges on drylands that would have taken a whole lot more human efforts. These are used to weed farmlands in the process of the germination of many plants and crops.
Cattle breeds in Nigeria are grouped into two. They are Indigenous and exotic breeds. Further, the indigenous breeds are subdivided into the Zebu and Taurine. Zebus are mainly characterized by longhorns, large humps, and tallness. Some of the breeds are Adamawa Gudali, Wadara, Bunaji, Rahaji, Azawak, and Sokoto Gudali. The Taurines are humpless, short-horned, and short-legged. Some examples are N’dama, Keteku, and Kuri (robust horns). The exotic breeds are acquired for breeding and milk production purposes. Some examples are Holstein Friesian, Jersey, and Brown Swiss.
There are three systems available in Nigeria for cattle management. These are the extensive or pastoral system, the semi-intensive or agro-pastoral system, and the intensive or commercial system.
- In the extensive cattle management system, animals are moved from one place to another in search of food, mainly grasses, and water. This is mostly practiced in Northern Nigeria among the nomadic communities.
- In the agro-pastoral system, cattle are been reared along with crops growing. Some animals are allowed to graze on demarcated rangelands and supplementary feeds are also given.
- In the intensive cattle management system, animals are kept indoors, fed with high-quality feed, provided with adequate housing and medical care. The exotic breeds are raised in this type of intensive system. Animals raised in the intensive system are mostly for milk production.
Sheep farming in Nigeria
Sheep rearing is very easy to manage when compared to the effort and money required to operate other forms of farming ventures in Nigeria. Generally, sheep are raised for their wool, mutton (meat), and milk. Mutton is eaten regularly as a good protein source, predominantly in the north. The common sheep breeds in Nigeria are the Balami, West African Dwarf (WAD), Yankasa, and Uda. The productivity of West African Dwarf sheep was substantially lower than that of other sheep breeds. A sheep is a ruminating animal. Sheep are known for their gentleness and vulnerability, and a group of sheep is called a herd. A herd is led by someone known as a shepherd. The shepherd is the one who leads the sheep out to feed them in pastures and then keep them safe from danger in the process of their feeding.
There are several breeds of sheep in Nigeria, and each of these sheep breeds has unique features with which they apply to human lives. Some breeds are raised for the wool on their skins. The wool on the skin of wool-based sheep makes them of great importance to the lives of both the sheep farmers and the general economy of the nation. Sheep wool is applicable in the fashion industry as some clothes are made with wool.
Some breeds of sheep are also raised for their meat. The market for sheep meat is voluminous in the Nigerian nation, and the entirety of the Nigerian meat production industry has still not leveled up with its demand in the Nigerian market. The important factor that makes sheep rearing very interesting is the fact that sheep get into heat every 16 to 18 days. This means that sheep can get pregnant in that interval of time, unlike some animals that take a long time to enter heat. Sheep have a gestation period of 100 to 148 days.
Pig farming in Nigeria
In Nigeria, pigs are one of the fastest-growing edible animals. They produced rapidly and they bred well, with the increase in demand for pig meat, only means one thing and the pig farming business has attained a lucrative status. They are raised for their pork (meat). The exotic pig breeds in Nigeria are Duroc, Large White, Hampshire, and Landrace. The traditional Nigerian black hairy pig is being replaced by various exotic breeds, including the Large White, Landrace, Hampshire, and Duroc breed.
Dynamics of ruminant livestock management in Nigeria
In Nigeria, livestock animals are mostly managed on the free-range, extensive system and semi-intensive systems. These are influenced by cheap means of feeding the stock all year round. Thus, the animals are allowed to roam the streets and neighborhoods to fend for themselves with little or no special or conscientious provision of supplements for the animals. Although, raised farm animals under the free-range and semi-intensive systems include the monogastric and ruminants, sheep and goats, alongside chicken constitutes the major farm animals largely raised in these livestock systems by the Nigerian rural households.
Instructions to start livestock farming in Nigeria
Prospect in different livestock farming areas
For every successful investor and business, it is essential to understand the demands and needs of local and foreign consumers. Then this way, it is easier to target buyers and make a decision among different markets. When you see that one area is more profitable than another area, it is obvious which one to choose and start off own business. But remember that every market and every consumer’s demands are different. So, the right decision should be made according to the market demand.
These days, almost all livestock farming regions bring in good money. Livestock farming in Nigeria is a very promising type of business.
1. Compose Your Livestock Farming Business Plan
- Before you get into any business, it is expected of you to do broad research on livestock farming.
- You need to do a feasibility study on Livestock Farming Business.
- When this is done, with your feasibility study and you put up a Business Plan.
- You must have the capacity to foresee and prevent conceivable difficulties.
- A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) examination must be done likewise.
2. Enroll Your Business
- Livestock business does not start that isn’t appropriately enlisted with the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria, CAC.
- The CAC is the first to establish a livestock farming business in Nigeria.
- There are other bodies as well. But the CAC must be the first port of call.
3. Settle on livestock business model
- There are several livestock businesses in Nigeria.
- The vast majority go for Dairy Operation Business Model or Meat Production Business Model.
- This is essential in seeing how to begin a livestock farm in Nigeria.
- This is necessary what you choose will decide the farm equipment you require.
- Dairy Operation Business Model is raising livestock mainly to offer their dairy products particularly milk.
- The Meat Production Business Model is raising livestock for meat utilization.
- The livestock business model you settle on assumes a key part in deciding the start of livestock farm equipment.
4. Rent or Buy a Farmland in Nigeria
- You can take a close look at renting a farm space.
- For example, a great proportion of Nigeria’s livestock products are sourced from the Northern parts of the nation. These states include Borno, Taraba, Jigawa, Kebbi, Adamawa, Bauchi, Gombe, Niger, Kaduna and Zamfara.
5. Buy livestock farming business Farm Equipment
- Your Livestock Business Model will mainly characterize the sort of farm equipment you will require.
- The main thing you do in the wake of renting or obtaining farmland for your livestock is to fence it around.
- Also, assume a noteworthy part in helping you keep the rented property.
Present challenges for livestock farming in Nigeria
High cost of animal feeds, inadequate finance, animal diseases, lack of infrastructure, lack of government incentives, and other factors militating against livestock production in Nigeria and tries to proffer solutions to them. Livestock is plagued by several challenges like lack of adequate supplies of quality feed and pasture, diseases, weak market network, unavailability of adequate water, and poor veterinary services. The important difficulties confronting the livestock are;
- Lack of capital,
- Storage offices,
- Frequent burglary.
Capital – One of the most important assets required by livestock farmers is capital as it is needed to set up and fund production.
Nutrition and Feed Supplies – The availability and importance of nutrition in livestock production cannot be overemphasized as they are essential in the development and productivity of livestock.
Animal Disease – Animal diseases remain a real threat to the livestock production industry in Nigeria. These diseases are so prevalent that they limit livestock production, increase the rate of illness and cause widespread death of livestock animals which in return leads to grave economic losses for farmers.
Lack of Good Storage Facilities – For livestock farming, storage facilities are unfortunately poorly in Nigeria.
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