A step by step guide to Marigold farming in polyhouse
Are you interested in floriculture in polyhouse? here is the guide for Marigold farming in Polyhouse to get maximum profits. Marigold is the commercially exploited flower crops of the genus Tagetes and family Asteraceae. Marigold is a commonly grown flower of India and it is a very important flower, as it extensively used in religious and social function. Also, Marigold is used as a trap crop. As it is a short duration crop with low investment, it becomes a very popular crop of India. Marigold flowers are very attractive in shape and color. Marigold is widely adopted because of the ease of cultivation. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, AP, Tamil Nadu, and MP are major Marigold cultivated states in India. Dashera and Diwali are two festivals when demand for Marigold crop is highest.
Varieties of Marigold:
Based on size and color the main varieties of Marigold are African Marigold and French Marigold. Plants of French marigold variety are short while flowers are small in size when compared to African marigold.
Tagetes erecta (African marigold)
The African marigold is hardy, annual and grows about 90 cm tall, erect and branched. These flowers are single to fully double with large globular heads. Flower color changes from lemon yellow to yellow, golden yellow or orange.
Tagetes patula (French marigold)
The French marigold plant is a hardy annual grows to about 30 cm tall, forming a bushy plant. Foliage is the dark green color with the reddish stem. These flowers are small, either single or double borne on proportionately long peduncles. The flower color changes from yellow to mahogany red.
Facts of Marigold farming in polyhouse
- Polyhouse farming is a new and widely accepted process of farming in present days. Polyhouse farming is a tunnel used with polyethylene in a semicircular shape. Polyethylene sheets stabilize the ultraviolet rays and help in good photosynthesis in crops.
- In Polyhouse farming, we can protect crops from any adverse environment such as high humidity or high temperature.
- Polyhouse is a very excellent example of modern agriculture. With the help of polyhouse, we can produce export quality and high quantity product so that we can get a good amount of money.
- Complete Protection from Pest and Insects by using polyhouse.
- In the polyhouse, the requirement of Labor is very less. Water and Fertilizer requirement is also less and you can get superior quality yield.
Soil requirement for Marigold farming in polyhouse:
- Marigold can be grown on a wide range of soil. But this crop grows best in well-drained fertile soil. The soil must be well-drained as it cannot withstand in waterlogged soil. The pH level of soil should be in the range of 6.5 to 7.5.
- Acidic and saline soil is not suitable for Marigold cultivation. French Marigold is growing best in light soil whereas soil with rich manure is best for African Marigold.
- French (Dwarf) marigolds are best cultivated in light soil whereas rich well-drained, moist soils are best suited for African (Tall) marigolds.
- Sandy loam soil with pH 5.6 to 6.5 is ideal for its cultivation.
You may also check the Ladyfinger Farming in Polyhouse.
Climate requirement for Marigold farming:
- Marigold plant requires mild climate for luxuriant growth and flowering.
- The optimum temperature range for its profuse growth is 18 to 20°C.
- Temperatures above 35°C restrict the growth of the Marigold plants, which leads to a reduction in flower size and number.
- In very high temperature, a plant ceases to grow, flower production is affected adversely and flower size is reduced to a great extent. During the severe winter season, plants and flowers are damaged by frost. Therefore, depending on the environment, planting is done in three seasons that is rainy, winter and summer; and seeds are sown accordingly. Therefore, flowers of Marigold can be obtained during the larger part of the year.
- The environmental conditions after the seedlings are transplanted markedly influence the Marigold plant growth and flowering. Mild climate during the growing period (14.5 -28.6 °C) greatly improves flowering while higher temperatures (26.2 -36.4°C) adversely affect Marigold flower production.
For the main-field, the land must be plowed well followed by 2-3 harrowing and mixing of FYM @ 20-25 t/ha should be incorporated to the soil. Make the ridges and furrow accurately.
Time of sowing:
Sowing time of Marigold can be done around the year. In the rainy season, do sowing in mid-June and Transplanting in mid-July month. In the winter season, do sowing in mid of September and mid-October, complete transplantation.
Marigold farming by seed in polyhouse:
Seed rate for Marigold varies from 2.0 to 2.5 Kg per hectare and takes about 5-7 days for germination. During the preparation of beds, 8 to 10 Kg of well-decomposed farmyard manure per 1 sq.m bed is thoroughly mixed with the soil. The width of the seedbed must not be more than 1.2 m and height should be 15 cm. Before sowing of seeds a little amount of BHC dust is applied to the seedbed to avoidant or termite infestation. During winter beds must be covered with a layer of straw to accelerate the germination process. However, the straw must be removed as soon as the seedlings are visible above the soil. Seeds germinate 5 to 7 days after sowing.
Seed germination process of Marigold:
Begin Marigold seeds in a seed-starting flat that’s filled up until 3/4 inch from the top with sterile, moist, seed-starting mix. Sprinkle the seeds on top of the medium and sow them at a depth that equals 2 to 4 times the diameter of the seeds. Spray the soil surface with water carefully to moisten it, and then place the tray in a plastic bag or cover it with plastic wrap and this will promote soil-moisture retention.
You should also consider to read Palak Farming in Polyhouse.
Marigold seeds can germinate in light and darkness as long as they are exposed to a temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. During the Marigold germination period, remove the plastic daily to aerate the tray and check the soil moisture. If needed, moisten the medium with a water-filled spray bottle to avoid washing away the Marigold seeds. You want the soil to remain moist, not wet, during the whole germination period.
Transplanting of seedlings:
- Marigold seedlings are easily transplanted in the field without much mortality.
- At the time of transplanting, they must be stocky and bear 3-5 true leaves. Thin and long Marigold seedlings do not make a good plant.
- Very old seedlings are not desirable.
- Transplanting must be done in well-prepared land and the soil is pressed around the root zone to avoid air pocket.
- After transplanting, light irrigation or watering with cane must be done.
- Plant density depends largely upon the growth habit, cultivar and required soil type.
- In general, spacing must be 30 cm x 30 cm for French marigold and 40 cm x 40 cm for African marigold.
- Proper spacing between plants is necessary for better development of plant and higher flower yield.
The watering requirement in Marigold farming in polyhouse:
After plantation in the field gives water immediately. Bud formation to harvesting is the main important stage for watering. Water stress should not occur at this stage. In April to June month, frequent irrigation at the interval of 4 to 5 days is necessary. Watering is done once in a week or as and when necessary. Water stagnation should be avoided in the field.
You should not miss the Polyhouse Vegetable Farming Advantages.
Watering the crop in 7-8 days interval, but the frequency and quantity of water also depend upon soil and season. In lighter soil, more frequent irrigation is necessary than that in heavy soil. In hot summer it requires irrigation after 405 days interval while at 10 to 12 days interval in winter months. Rainy season crops are irrigated according to climate change. Constant moisture supply is maintained from bud formation to harvesting of flowers.
Weed control of Marigold plants:
- Weeds are a major problem in Marigold farming, especially in rainy season crop. If the weeds are not removed in time, a great loss would happen in terms of growth and productivity of Marigold.
- During the entire growth 3 to 4 manual weeding is required.
Pests and diseases in Marigold farming in polyhouse:
- Marigold plants have few pests or problems overall, but mites and aphids sometimes infest the plants. Generally, a spray of water or the application of insecticidal soap, repeated every other day for a week or two, will solve the problem.
- Marigold plants can be susceptible to gray mold, bacterial leaf spot, powdery mildew, and root rot. Pests such as leaf miners or spider mites can also be a problem. Interestingly enough, Marigolds also do their fair share of repelling many types of insects.
- Occasionally marigold plants will get a fungal infection if conditions are too wet. To prevent fungal issues, avoid getting water on the marigold plant leaves, keep weeds down, and plant in well-drained soil.
Generally, Marigold flowers are plucked when they have attained full size. Plucking of flowers must be done in cool hours of the day. The field must be irrigated before plucking so that flowers keep well for a longer period after harvest. Plucked Marigold flowers are collected in polythene bags or bamboo baskets for carrying to markets.
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