Neem Uses in Organic Farming:
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Introduction
India is an agriculture-based country, where 40% of income is based on agriculture. Out of 100, 60 families are agriculture families, if they see back their family history. Every Indian comes from agriculture family background As India is highly populated country, it may require 250 million tones food by 2015 AD which very difficult comparing the current circumstances. It very tough serve food needs of each Indian.
Ancient India, Agriculture is the only source of income. Land used to be very fertile and cultivated using all the natural methods. In olden days there is no sound of pesticides, they used only natural medicine like cattle waste as the pesticides. They used only organic manures made with harmless natural ingredients. Many studies and scientists have made a study on Ancient India farming, they proved that organic manures help to free farm from pests and they made land strong with huge returns.
But these days, agriculture is mainly dependent on pesticides. Though these pesticides give you more profits, Pesticides are very harmful to human health and for lands fertility. Due to powerful chemicals used in pesticides, it affects human health to a large extent. Due to this powerful chemical in pesticides, lands are losing their strength and natural minerals.
Dependency on insecticides has increased to the huge extent, the severity has increased to a range that even the insects have become resistant to insecticides. For example, cotton bollworm is resistant to all insecticides available in countries like India, Pakistan and in the USA. The black moth is also being resistant to all insecticides available in Malaysia, USA, Thailand etc.
Chemicals very hazardous to humans and land fertility. This article gives complete information about using the natural and organic pesticides using NEEM.
Neem is the world best tree have rich medical values, Neem belongs to tree family Meliaceae. The botanical name for Neem is Azadirachtaindica, which is called as Nim, Neem, Limba, and Nimba etc. Neem is most used medicine for many medicines in Ayurveda and even in allopathy. Neem does not have many medical values even it is natural insect defender.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Neem as A pesticide
Neem is the best composition of many elements that can kill the insects without artificial chemicals. Chemical insecticides that available in the market kills insects by spoiling its digestive of the insect or by affecting its nervous system. But this process makes insects resistant to these pesticides in long run. When comes to Neem, Neem directly effects on the insect’s hormonal system which does not lead to resistance in the future generations. Neem has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal compounds called limonoids’, limonoids make neem the best insecticide, pesticides etc that are not harmful and effective.
There are a group of limonoids in neem that helps to control the growth insects, bacteria, and fungus. Azadirachtin is the main compound that makes Neem a insecticides and pesticide. Alike chemical pesticide Neem doesn’t work immediately, it shows impact slowly reduces the growth and reproduction of insects.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – How does Neem work on insects?
- Neem slowly works on a hormonal system of insects, it destroys the production of eggs or larvae.
- Neem controls the molting of larvae and repelling larvae and adults.
- Neem has the power to reduce the matting and sexual interaction in insects. It also kills the fertility power in insects and prevents female inspects from laying eggs.
- Neem can stop the feeding power insects and poisoning larvae.
- Neem shows a huge impact on chitin formation and metamorphosis.
- Neem interrupts on the swallowing capacity of insect.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Forms of Neem
There several extracts of Neem that work on insecticides and pesticides. These are natural products that are chemical free and increases the fertility, farm production quality, and quantity.
- Neem Seed Extract:
Neem Seeds extract are used to in various industries. Neem seeds are extracted both by aqueous and solvent methods.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Properties of Neem Seed Extracts
- Anti-bacterial, Anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-fungal, germicidal and Anti-Microbial.
How to prepare?
For preparing 100 liters of 5% NSKE solution:
- Take 5 kg of well dried Neem Seed kernels and grind them into the soft powder.
- Soak them in 10 liters of water overnight. Stir with a wooden plank in the morning till solution turns milky white.
- Add 10 ml of pH neutral adjutant and stir the mixture and filter in with clean muslin cloth.
- Follow the same procedure for leftover seed paste for 2 to 3 times. After then use leftover as a manure.
How to Use?
- 1.25% to 5% of NKAE is used for the crops.
- For prevention of insects spray the lower concentration of NKAE and for protection from insects use a higher concentration of NKAE.
- NKAE is not a preservative, it should be used on the same day of preparation.
- Spraying should have done in the midday. Spray shows its impact for 7-10 days.
Pests Controlled: Beetle Larvae, Butterfly, and moth caterpillars, stalk borers, true buds, plant and leafhoppers, adult beetles, fruit flies etc.
- Neem Leaf Extract:
Neem leaves extracts to have great antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. Neel leaf extract has fruit like the smell and contains essential elements, these are used in a number of pesticides and insecticides.
How to prepare?
Take 1 kg of neem leaves and soaked in 5 liters of water overnight. And next day ground the leaves and filter the water. Neem leaf extract required more leaves and this extract is used for nursery and kitchen gardens.
Pests controlled: Caterpillars, grubs, locusts, grasshopper, fruit flies etc.
- Neem Cake Extract:
Neem cake extract is an organic manure and a by-product obtained in the process of cold pressing of neem fruits and kernels, and the solvent extraction process for neem cake extract.
How to prepare?
100 grams of neem cake is used for 1 liter of water. Soak neem cake in muslin pouch in water for overnight. It is then filtered, and emulsifier is added and used as a spray.
Pests controlled: Neem organic cake extracts protects from nematodes, soil grubs, and white ants.
Neem Oil Spray: Neem Oil spray is used as a foliar spray or season application. Neem oil helps to kill insects at varying stages, it can kill over winter pests and eggs. Neem oil foliar spray used to repel and kill insects.
How to prepare
15 to 30 ml of neem oil is added to 1 liter of water and stirred well. An emulsifier is added and mixed properly. Once oil drop starts floating, Neem oil is ready to use.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – How to use Neem Extracts?
Neem extracts are recommended to be used at low sunlight means morning or late afternoons. While spraying neem extracts you should spray both sides of leaves as insect’s effects underside mainly.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Some precautions while preparing Neem extracts
- Don’t overboil the mixtures.
- Only use natural pH emulsifier.
- Water extracts are used only on the same day of preparation.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Neem for Non-insect pests
Neem to control Threadworm: An effective composition of limonoids present in neem kernels has provided to control Threadworm. Threadworms are hard to control, and chemicals are not recommended. Water extracts of neem cake are best natural nematocidal that prevents threadworm.
The fungus is very dangerous problems the effects the crops like rice, wheat, and corn at all stages. Neem has rich in anti-fungal properties that makes it best fungicide. So neem became beneficial for agriculture and environment.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Neem for Food Storage
Neem is the best pesticide that controls pets of stored products. A traditional way to control the pests in stored products is by mixing dried neem leaves before keeping them in storage. Neem leaves and neem oils act as the pest repellent, they can control pests like weevils, flour beetles, bean-sees beetles etc.
Storage bins made of neem leaves, clay and dung are highly pest resistant. Neem oil extract can destroy beam-seeds beetles at egg stage itself. Using the chemical pesticides in food grains are not always recommended. While neem a natural disinfector, proper use neem at proper times will be very helpful to control pests in stored products.
Neem Uses in Organic Farming – Neem for Soil fertility:
Neem has many anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties that can act as both fertilizer and pest controller. Indians farmers use neem on their farms in many ways.
- They use neem cake as a natural fertilizer for fields. Neem cake used as pest repellent and fertilizer.
- Neem leaves can enrich the soils, in some part of India farmers plough neem leaves into flooded rice fields before the rice seedlings transplanted.
- Neem cake is also best pest controller, Neem cake is ploughed into the soil. This protects the plant roots from many insects like nematodes and white ants.
- Neem cake and leaves are very nutritious to crops. It promotes the organics acids in the soil and reduces alkalinity.