Introduction: Poultry farming is raising poultry birds for meat, eggs, feathers, etc. These poultry birds are grown within a protected environment by poultry farmers. Poultry farming is a profitable business that gives good returns. The poultry farmers must regularly give feed supplements to provide commercial poultry nutrition to birds. If there is a lack of poultry nutrition, birds can be affected by some common chicken diseases. It is the fastest developing area in the agriculture and farming business. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are important in poultry birds.
The poultry farming business raises birds for meat and egg production, such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese. These poultry birds are farmed in great numbers. Among these, chickens are the most common. It is one of the fastest-growing segments of the agricultural sector in India, with around an 8% growth rate per annum. Poultry farming in Andhra Pradesh is the fastest-growing segment in the agriculture sector.
A Step-by-Step Guide on How to Start Poultry Farming In Andhra Pradesh
Globally, India ranks 3rd in the world in egg production and 5th in the world in chicken meat production. While poultry production is mainly achieved commercially, the rural poultry sector contributes to the Indian poultry industry. Then, it is looked upon as a reliable economic and nutritional source. The government of Andhra Pradesh has identified the Poultry Sector as one of the Growth Engines for employment development in rural regions and to ensure food security for the masses at the lowest price.
Andhra Pradesh is positioned to capture this growth opportunity. It is India’s 2nd largest egg-producing state, accounting for one-fifth of the country’s entire egg output; and it has one of the largest broiler (40 million) and layer (40 million) populations in the country and enjoys a 10% share of total Indian broiler meat production. Because of the intensive poultry activity in Andhra Pradesh, growers have to be well-trained to have sufficient knowledgeable manpower.
Advantages of Poultry Framing in Andhra Pradesh
- Start with Less Amount – The main benefit is that it doesn’t need high capital. You need some basic capital to start raising poultry farming. Also, poultry birds like chickens and hens are not expensive to start raising.
- No Need for Bigger Space – It doesn’t require a big space unless you are going to start commercially. You can raise poultry birds in the backyard with one or numerous coops or cages. Also, you can do it in your backyard with several birds.
- It requires less investment compared to other livestock animals. It needs around Rs. 10,000/- on fixed capital for the rearing of 100 chickens. Also, small and marginal farmers can start small-scale poultry farming. The chicken will start laying eggs in about 8 to 10 weeks; broilers can be sold after six weeks.
- Poultry farming gives a rapid return on investment. The chicken starts laying eggs in about 8 to 10 weeks, and broilers can be sold for meat between 6 and 10 weeks. The interval between generations is small, and production can be phenomenally increased quickly.
- Broilers’ feed intake is low, while it produces the maximum possible amount of food for us.
- Poultry farming is a continuous income source. It is not seasonal and then produces income for the entire year. The income-generating products in poultry farms are meat, eggs, feathers, and manure of chicken and broiler breeds. It requires only minimum space, and they can be reared even in the backyards.
- Poultry farming requires little water for drinking and cleaning. About one liter of water is sufficient for five birds for a day. Poultry droppings are rich in nitrogen, and organic material is considered valuable as fertilizers.
- High Returns –Poultry farming gives a high return on investment compared to other systems within a short period. In these, few poultry birds take a shorter time to mature and generate profit.
- Income and Employment Opportunities – Poultry farming creates income and employment opportunities. Unemployed, educated youth can make a great income by raising poultry birds.
- Easy Bank Loans – All banks approve loans for these business ventures. If you can apply for poultry farming loans from your local banks, you want to start this poultry business commercially.
Housing for Poultry Farming in Andhra Pradesh
- Poultry bird shelters are the next important factor after farm sites in poultry rearing. The shelters should be raised adequately to prevent the risk of flooding. The selected house must be spacious enough to move and run the poultry birds. The shelter must be adequately ventilated and protected from sunlight. It is advisable to construct the poultry shelters in a south-facing direction. There must be adequate drainage facilities in the shelter. If there is more than one shelter, then the distance between the two of them must be maintained at least 50 feet.
- This ensures proper ventilation and non-accumulation of ammonia inside the poultry house. The entrances in the shelter should be fastened properly. The shelter design mainly depends on the poultry breed, type of production, etc.
- Make a proper ventilation system in the house, and a good ventilation system ensures good health and proper growth of the birds.
- Ensure the flow of a sufficient amount of fresh air and light inside the poultry house. Try to make south faced the house. Then, this will help to entrance sufficient amount of clean and fresh air.
- If you go for large-scale commercial production and make numerous houses, then the distance from one house to another house will be at least 40 feet.
- Always keep the house clean and fresh. Make good facilities so rainwater and cold wind can’t enter the poultry house. Make a suitable drainage system inside the house, and it will help you to clean the house easily.
Important Factors to Start Poultry Farming Business for Beginners
The poultry farming business is a multibillion-dollar industry; the below factors are important for a successful poultry farming business;
Step 1) Choosing a Poultry Farm Site
The farm site should be away from the chaos and hustle-bustle of the city. It must be a calm and pollution-free environment. The farm has adequate, clean, and fresh drinking water sources nearby. Also, the location must be free of poultry enemies and predators. The selected place must be easily accessible from the main roads. In other words, transportation should be easy and not very difficult. Also, the local markets must be easily accessible.
Step 2) Climate Conditions for Poultry Farm
Climate condition plays a major role in a successful venture. If you are planning environmentally controlled houses, temperature control is crucial. Check if your location in Andhra Pradesh supports poultry farming. If the climate condition is more than 35°C in the house, birds begin to die suddenly, and all your investment will be gone. In those cases, we have to take precautions by using water sprinklers to reduce the temperature levels.
Step 3) Creating a business plan
A poultry business plan is a roadmap that includes achieving business goals. The business plan for poultry farming is given below;
1. Finding a suitable place to start the poultry farm.
2. List of required equipment.
3. Deciding on the variety of poultry birds on the farm.
4. Details of processes such as egg production, broiler breeding, etc.
5. Specifics relating to various resources such as human resources, financial resources, etc.
6. Plans for marketing and advertising strategies.
7. Information on legal clearances required, like licenses and permissions.
Step 4) Selection of Equipment
One of the most important steps is to find the appropriate land for the business. This poultry equipment is the costliest while setting up the poultry business. The size of the land may change depending on the type of the business. There are four types of poultry farms they are;
1. Free Range Poultry Farm – For a free-range poultry farm, approximately 12,000 to 36,000 sq. ft. is required as poultry birds can move freely.
2. Semi-Range Poultry Farm – For this type of poultry farm approximately 8000 sq. ft. is required for this poultry farm type.
3. Battery Cage Poultry Farm – For the Battery Cage poultry birds, approximately 6,000 sq. ft. is required. In this type of farm, the poultry birds will not be let loose to move around.
4. Completely Wild Poultry Farm – This is similar to the birds’ natural habitat with plenty of trees. Approximately 44,000 sq. ft. will be required for the same.
Other important factors to consider when selecting the place would be to find an area away from the city, preferably safe, calm, and pollution-free, with easily accessible amenities.
Step 5) Deciding the Variation of Poultry Bird used in Poultry Farming
India is home to one of the biggest markets for the poultry industry around the world. Different types of poultry birds are available, such as chicken, geese, turkey, ducks, guinea fowl, quail, etc., but poultry farms mainly raise chickens.
Step 6) Taking Measures for the Poultry Farm Care and Management
It is imperative to take precautionary measures to ensure the poultry birds’ health and safety, which will help their proper nurturing and growth. There are some threats when running a poultry farm business, but the main one remains poultry diseases. Providing clean water, nutritious food, and regular vaccinations to the poultry is essential. Taking adequate measures and having consistent regulation will ensure one does not face huge losses due to some diseases and other potential risks.
Step 7) Getting the required Licenses/Permissions for starting a Poultry Farm
India’s Government is taking steps to support and promote the poultry farm business to increase poultry product demand. The person can start and maintain a poultry farm in India without much maintenance after getting the required permissions and licenses with the right legal assistance.
Types of Poultry
Many different chicken breeds have been developed for different purposes. For simplicity, you can place them into three main categories. They are;
- Meat-producing and
- Dual-purpose breeds.
Laying Breeds – These laying breeds are known for their egg-laying capacity. Hens begin to lay at 16 to 20 weeks of age and will lay between 20 to 23 dozen eggs in the 1st year. At 14 months, usually laying hens begin to molt, the process by which they drop their old feathers and grow new ones. No eggs are laid during this period. Hens will lay larger but fewer eggs per year, about 16 to 18 dozen after molting.
Meat Breeds – Meat poultry breeds are efficient at converting feed to meat. Meat-producing chickens are broad-breasted and larger compared to the laying breeds. They grow and feather rapidly and will weigh 5 pounds or more at eight weeks. The roaster is butchered at about 6 to 8 pounds, while broilers and fryers are butchered at 31/2 to 5 pounds.
Dual-Purpose Breeds – The dual-purpose poultry breed is the classic backyard chicken. Most lay large brown-shelled eggs. Egg production will be affected because broody hens don’t lay eggs. So, consult with a local extension agent or poultry expert to help you choose the right poultry breeds.
Egg Production in Andhra Pradesh
The main share in egg production of Andhra Pradesh is East Godavari district, along with West Godavari and Krishna. In Andhra Pradesh, the poultry industry growth is phenomenal and now reached a stage of self-sufficiency in the production of breeding stock, feed, vaccines, and equipment to meet the necessary needs. The poultry industry assures the provision of quality protein through eggs and meat and also promotes employment generation. In Andhra Pradesh, the egg consumption is 99 eggs per annum, approximately 525 crores.
Facts about Poultry Farming in Andhra Pradesh
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In Andhra Pradesh, the highest layer bird population, with approximately 6.27 crores, is in the East and West Godavari, Krishna, and Guntur districts. Also, the prominent poultry districts with a medium number of layer farms are Chittoor, Nellore, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, and Visakhapatnam districts. Prakasam and Kurnool districts have a small population in Andhra Pradesh. There are approximately 26 hatcheries, 22 commercial feed manufacturing mills, excluding feed mixing facilities owned by poultry farmers on their farms, and 29 layer and broiler breeder farms. Andhra Pradesh produces nearly 65% of the eggs produced are sent to several states like Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and to cities daily in trucks. Each truck carries about 1.50 to 2.00 lakh eggs packed in plastic trays and placed in cardboard boxes loaded in trucks to various markets daily. The rest of the eggs are consumed within Andhra Pradesh, with an average of about 99 eggs per head per annum, per the National Nutrition Council (N.N.C). As the economic status of people improves, the purchasing power will increase, thus giving scope for further growth of about 10% per annum in the layer sector. The total number of commercial broilers raised in a year will be approximately 11 crores.
About 70 to 75 % of broiler farmers are in the integration system, and the remaining are integrators in Andhra Pradesh. Integrators will supply feed, medicines, etc., whereas the farmer has to prepare the shed and then meet electricity and labor expenses by himself. At the marketing stage, the grower will be paid based on live weights obtained. Whether an individual farmer, the chain ends with live bird marketing, called horizontal integration. Vertical integration needs to be developed, where live birds are dressed in the processing plant, and value is added. The processing sector is limited today, and this will gradually increase as the per capita income increases due to urbanization.
Poultry Breeds in Andhra Pradesh
Assel or Asil Breed
Aseel is also known as Asil, and it is an ancient game bird reared in rural regions and has good meat qualities. This Aseel breed has been used for developing improved broiler varieties.
This is found in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan in India. The chickens weigh about 4-5 kilograms, and the chickens weigh 3-4 kg. The ability of chickens to lay eggs is low. It is an ancient breed from India and is kept for mainly ornamental purposes. Also, they are popularly found in Andhra Pradesh. The feather is red, black, or a mix of both and is known as a hard feather. Aseel breed eggs are light brown.
Nurie (white), Kagar (black), Chitta (black and white silver), Peela (golden red), Yarkin (black and red), Teekar (brown), and Reza (light red) are the popular Aseel breed varieties. The birds of this chicken breed are well-known for their meat qualities. Its face is long and slender and not covered with feathers.
CARI NIRBHEEK (Aseel Cross)
The meaning of Aseel is real or pure. It is well known for its high stamina, majestic gait, and dogged fighting qualities. CARI Nirbheekbreed is a cross of the Aseel breed with CARl Red. These birds are active and pugnacious with high stamina and majestic gait. They can save themselves from their predators due to their fighting characters and activeness and are mostly adapted to all climatic zones of the country.
Srinidhi breed is a dual-purpose variety. It has optimum body weight and better egg production. The survivability was more than 95%. This Srinidhi variety was under field conditions in Tripura, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh.
Danki breed is distributed in the Vizianagram district (Bobli region) and adjoining parts of the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. Its color is mainly brown, followed by black.
Ghagus breed is a pure Indian breed and is mostly found in Andhra Pradesh. This is a good table bird, and the hen is a fair layer, a good sitter, and a real mother. The color pattern is patchy in males and spotted in females. The neck is covered with golden feathers, and wattles are absent. The birds are maintained largely for eggs and game purposes and are mainly reared in a backyard. The hens are good layers.
Kalasthiis are native to the Chittoor district. The common plumage color is bluish-black, but brown-colored birds are also noticed. The color pattern is patchy in males and spotted in females.
Backyard Poultry Farming in Andhra Pradesh
Backyard poultry farming in Andhra Pradesh is more beneficial to small, marginal farmers, landless laborers, and tribal and backward areas. However, it has been encountering constraints such as low egg production and poor weight gain, poor vaccination, and higher mortality rate, and also increased nutrition status of tribal people.
By adopting rural poultry farming, the high incidence of protein hunger in the rural population, particularly in pregnant and lactating mothers and growing kids, can be obviated.
Backyard poultry farming will generate petty cash for household requirements to provide balanced food within rural areas. Feeding management of poultry birds in the backyard is easy by using household wastes, farm products, and green vegetation. The poultry birds reared in the backyard farming fetches premium rates due to high consumer acceptability even in the urban regions, even though plenty of eggs and poultry meat from commercial units are accessible.
Backyard poultry farming utilizes minimum inputs, less human attention, and less environmental pollution. These birds can thrive well under adverse environmental conditions such as poor housing, poor management, and poor feeding. These poultry birds are sturdy and resistant to most common poultry diseases because of their high immune competence. Less fat content in the meat of these poultry birds makes it acceptable to even-aged people.
Process for Poultry Framing Business in Andhra Pradesh
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1. Select the poultry sector that is well suited to your requirements
- Meat production (through broiler breeding)
- Eggs production (through layers breeding)
- Production of poultry feed
- Equipment manufacturing required in poultry farming
- Eggs and meat processing
- Chicken hatching
- Packaging and marketing of meat and eggs
Depending upon one’s interest and feasibility, the entrepreneur can choose more than one section to start the business.
2. Select the type of poultry birds you want to breed and raise on your farm. It is advisable to choose from limited broilers and layers for meat and egg production. As the business grows, one can add more variety of poultry birds depending upon the demand and profitability.
3. Select the poultry farm location – The poultry farm is not too far away from the place of consumption of goods. After that, finalize the place in advance from where the operations can be managed conveniently.
4. It is important to name your poultry farm and register it based on state laws. Also, it is necessary to create a logo and a website for your business if you intend to market your products online and supply them to distant places.
5. Arrange the finances – Poultry farming requires a limited capital amount in the beginning. Funds are required for several purposes, including buying/renting land and equipment, hiring staff, birds, and raw materials, managing cash flow, paying salaries, etc.
6. Marketing your poultry products among the target audience is necessary.
7. After marketing the products, supplying the product to consumers is essential. Consumers can be retailers, shop vendors, wholesale markets, restaurants, etc.
Essential Nutrients for Poultry Farming in Andhra Pradesh
The best nutritious diet is important for poultry growth. The health of poultry birds depends on the nutrients found in poultry feeds. The poultry diet must contain water, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins, fats, and minerals. The reduction in these 6 components may lead to nutrition-related problems for poultry.
Common Nutrition-Related Problems of Poultry
Water Shortage – The poultry can live without food, but water is a necessary component that should be provided for birds regularly. Shortage of water for a few hours can result in the reduction of egg production. Water acts as a cooling factor and also helps digestion. Water takes the chicken’s nutrition to the cell and produces energy. Clean water shortage will cause problems in poultry production.
Carbohydrate Deficiency – It is the highest proportion of feed supplements for poultry birds. Carbohydrate deficiency can result in weight loss and poultry production.
Vitamin Deficiency – Vitamins are provided in small quantities in poultry birds. But vitamins play a major role in poultry birds’ body function, reproduction, and growth. Poultry birds are affected by several vitamin deficiency problems due to the omission of vitamins in the chicken diet.
Protein Deficiency – Protein is the source of amino acids. The protein intake as poultry nutrition is broken down into amino acids absorbed by the blood and then transported to cells. Protein deficiency leads to slow growth or stops ovulation, which leads to a drop in egg production.
Mineral Deficiency – The mineral nutrients in poultry feed are essential for bird bone development. The best feed components must be selected and provided as feed to maintain the broiler chicken nutrition at the stable line.
Feed Management for Poultry Farming in Andhra Pradesh
Good quality and highly nutritious food is a must for commercial poultry production. The rate of productivity in birds is high. They quickly convert their feed into food products. Regularly, they require about 38 nutrients in adequate amounts for their regular diet pattern. The feed can be given in different forms, such as crumbles, mash, or pellets. In addition to providing the birds with feed, they should be given an ample amount of clean and fresh drinking water.
To keep the poultry birds healthy, feed birds with good quality and nutritious food. Therefore, good and high-quality nutritious food is essential for commercial poultry production. They produce feeds for all poultry birds, and you can easily use those foods for your birds.
If you want to prepare the feed at your home, then you should have to know the necessary nutrient elements in their food. You must buy all those elements separately from the market and mix them in the proper ratio. Along with providing fresh and nutritious food, always try to serve them a sufficient amount of fresh and clean water based on their daily demands.
Loans for Poultry Farming Business
What do you need to start poultry farming?
- For starting poultry farming, land is required.
- To start a poultry farming business, you should choose a place at a short distance from your village or city.
- Select a place where there is good provision of water, clean air and sunlight, and vehicles.
How can you get a loan?
- For the poultry farming business, you can obtain a loan from any government bank.
- State Bank of India (SBI) gives loans up to 75% of the total cost for this business. You can take a loan of up to 9 lakh rupees, and this loan from SBI has to be returned in 5 years. If you cannot repay the loan in 5 years, then six months more time is given. This scheme is a ‘Broiler Plus’ scheme by the State Bank of India.
Problems of Poultry Industries in Andhra Pradesh
The poultry farming business has challenges and problems, like feeding, meat, production, and marketing. It has progressed considerably during the last decade, which is a positive sign.
The Government agencies shall be liberal and help set up new feed production units not only under the government sector. There is a need for government schemes to provide the much-needed finances to poultry farmers at reasonable rates of interest.
Feeding – The number of farmers responded as all the problems associated with the feeding of birds were considered the main problem. Interestingly, 50% of the respondents said that the feeding of birds was expensive, particularly with fish, soya beans, and wheat—the inadequacy of supply to feed birds (30%) and bad feed formulation (20%). Due to the high cost of feed and the difficulty in measuring the right quantities of birds, 80% of producers buy their feeds from the south; only 20% reported that they prepare the feed themselves.
Water – Access to water for birds is considered a model problem due to water availability in the Municipality. It becomes a problem if the farm is located on the outskirts of the study area without immediate capital to construct a borehole for the water supply. The cost of buying water from water tankers is costly, and the use of automated drinkers makes the work of the laborers simpler.
Weather – Prevailing weather condition is another issue that hinders poultry production. Particularly in the dry season, temperatures in the area range between 40 to 43°C, which affects poultry productivity as birds cannot thrive well in those high temperatures.
Labor – Availability of labor and land are not considered much of a problem. Producer focus groups regarded labor as a minor problem as they indicated that there are lots of people without jobs. However, these laborers turn to acquire the skills gradually as they stay on the job.
Land – Landholding is sometimes considered the main problem. This is because the local authorities restrict land for the poultry industry, and the intention of expanding and creating more farms becomes difficult.
Suggestions for Betterment of the Poultry Industry in Andhra Pradesh
The below suggestions are offered for the growth of the poultry industry in Andhra Pradesh;
- The poor quality and misleading brands of feed proved ineffective in improving the health of birds and, at times, even harmful to the health of the birds. Suitable statutory measures should be adopted to ensure that quality feed is produced and marketed.
- Government agencies help set up new feed production units not only in the government sector but also in the private sector. It would go a long way in overcoming the problem of the non-availability of feed.
- The poultry farmers follow scientific poultry management practices in the health care of poultry birds. Proper vaccination and diet supplements will reduce the mortality rate of poultry birds. Also, the keeping of birds in a healthy and hygienic environment can reduce the cost of health care.
- The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development scheme ensures that the refinance facilities to the banks for the poultry industry growth are carried out without fail.
Marketing Plan for Poultry Farming
You can easily sell your poultry products in your nearest local market. Therefore, you don’t have to worry about marketing your products. If the local market is located so far from your farm, then transport the products very carefully.
If you are new in this poultry business, first of all, try to visit some farms practically and start raising on a small scale. After gaining sufficient knowledge, go for large-scale poultry production.
If you live in Andhra Pradesh(AP) state and plan to set up a Poultry Farm, this article might be helpful to construct and run a poultry farming business in Andhra Pradesh.
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