Introduction to poultry farming in Tamil Nadu: Poultry farming is the method of raising poultry birds (i.e., chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese) for meat or egg production. Poultry products provide you with fresh and nutritious food. Poultry farming doesn’t need much space unless you are starting a business. You can easily keep some birds in your backyard with one or more coops or cages.
The poultry sector in India has been extremely beneficial to the common man and has also contributed to earning foreign exchange through exports. Tamil Nadu ranks second in the country in egg production with 10.8 billion eggs. Tamil Nadu accounts for 17.71% of the country’s poultry population. More than 90% of poultry or poultry products exported from India come from Tamil Nadu.
Guide on poultry farming in Tamil Nadu, breeding & feeding management, government subsidy, poultry breeds, loans, disease prevention and control
Location for poultry farming in Tamil Nadu
The first and most important step in starting your form is to decide the location. The land size will be determined by the number of poultry birds you want to farm. Also, make sure that the surrounding area is free of predators that can harm poultry farms or your poultry birds. It is recommended that a good way of transportation be used to and from the farm.
Poultry houses should have proper road facilities. It must have basic facilities like water and electricity. The poultry house should be in a high place and water should not accumulate there. It should have proper ventilation. Choose well-drained soil for poultry shed. Hard rock or murram is more suitable. Avoid waterlogging and flooding near sheds. Provide separate sheds for cultivators and layers.
Get training/experience in layer farming before starting the farm. You need to be prepared to stay on the farm and be constantly monitored. Provide adequate space for each bird. Make the shed in such a way that the last walls face east-west and the side walls face north-south so that rainwater does not enter the sheds. 6. Provide a strong roof and hard floor. Make the shed’s platform at least one foot above the outside surface. Provide a 3-to-4-foot overhang for the roof to prevent rainwater from entering the shed.
Provide adequate lighting and ventilation and comfortable accommodation in all seasons (cool in summer and warm in winter). Build the shed so that predators (cats/dogs/snakes) do not enter the shed. Avoid rat infestation and build a rat-protected civil structure. The chicken coop is a structure where chickens or other fowl breeds are protected. There are nests and perches in the house.
They can be reduced due to poor air quality and darkness, so highly ventilated or open-air coupes with outdoor conditions are needed, even in winter. Also However, other poultry farmers believe that they are susceptible to outdoor diseases and need a controlled environment. This has led to two chicken housing designs: fresh air houses with wide-open doors and nothing but a mesh of wires between the chickens and the weather (even in northern winters), or doors, closed houses with windows and hatches that can shut off most ventilation.
Breeding management in poultry farming
Commercial chickens are not produced by chance but are the result of systematic and time-consuming scientific breeding. Breeding is a never-ending pursuit of perfection. Success in any breeding program depends on a breeder taking advantage of the natural variations in birds and choosing the right stock for crossing. It takes about eight years for a new genetic line to grow, select and develop, rigorously test it in various variants and launch it as a new commercial product.
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Backyard poultry farming in Tamil Nadu
Although poultry farming is growing rapidly in the state, development is restricted to commercial poultry. Commercial poultry backyard chickens hardly need any infrastructure, which is a powerful tool for the development of the rural poor. In addition to generating income, rural backyard poultry provides nutritional supplements in the form of valuable animal protein and empowers women.
In five districts of Tamil Nadu, the ‘Improving Rural Livelihoods through Backyard Poultry Raising’ scheme was implemented. These are Dindigul, Pudukkottai, Ramanathpuram, Sivagangai and Thoothukkudi. Because the production of indigenous chickens, which are usually reared in rural backyards, is low, they resemble chicken strains, such as Giriraja desi chickens, which are supplied to the beneficiaries with higher productivity.
Feeding management for poultry farming in Tamil Nadu
Birds on poultry farms should be kept healthy by feeding them in large quantities. For the development of poultry animals, proper nutrition is essential. Poultry feed companies in the market produce food for different varieties of poultry birds. You can also cook them at home. Proper for birds and clean water is essential for your poultry birds. By following these steps, you can start your own poultry farming business soon.
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Government subsidy for poultry farming in Tamil Nadu
The Tamil Nadu government has ordered the implementation of a poultry program to promote the poultry business. Under this scheme, the government subsidizes 25% of the cost of setting up a poultry farm. This scheme is currently being implemented gradually in all the districts. In addition, a 25% subsidy will be provided by NABARD. Beneficiaries will receive the remaining 50% at their own expense or as a bank loan.
Under this scheme, the first installment will be 25% and the last 25% will be the NABARD grant. The grant is Rs. 45,750 per user. Farmers, individuals, businesses, and self-help groups deserve this award. Those with prior experience in poultry farming and those interested in poultry farming can avail benefits under this scheme. They should have enough land to farm.
Beneficiaries who have already set up a shed and farmers who are interested in setting up a new shed and expanding poultry farms have the opportunity to avail benefits under this scheme. The selected beneficiaries will be trained for 3 days through the training centers of Tamil Nadu Veterinary Science University operating district-wise. Therefore, those who are eligible and interested can submit applications for this scheme to their nearest Veterinary Assistant along with a bank approval letter or proof of their funds.
Poultry farming schemes for backward areas in Tamil Nadu
To encourage more small and medium-scale farmers, the Tamil Nadu government is planning to develop poultry clusters in seven backward and non-poultry areas of the state. Animal husbandry is a fast-growing sector in Tamil Nadu, playing a vital role in the rural economy by providing employment to many small and backward farmers and landless agricultural laborers and raising their economic status.
The policy notes state that National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Scheduled Commercial Banks will be involved in implementing the scheme, which will be linked to the existing poultry venture capital fund of the central government.
NABARD could encourage contract farming for broiler activity and provide capital investment to poultry units, such as sheds and equipment. They can also raise alternative breeds of chickens (such as quail and ducks) and fund various activities under the poultry sector. During the current financial year, the credit capacity for poultry development in the state has been estimated at Rs. 1,330.65 crore. Tamil Nadu accounts for 20 percent of India’s total egg production, which is expected to reach Rs 9,000 crore from the current level of about Rs 7,500 crore. The state produces about 20,000 million eggs every year.
According to a policy note from the State Department of Animal Husbandry, the development of the poultry industry has been achieved through the establishment of poultry extension centers, which serve as demonstration farms and provide training to farmers in poultry farming. Most poultry farmers earn between Rs 10,000 and Rs 100,000 per month.
Different poultry breeds in Tamil Nadu
For the benefit of poor poultry farmers, the Tamil Nadu University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (TNUVAS) has introduced several native chicken varieties. These new breeds not only increase the weight of the meat but also increase the number of eggs. Classified into two major groups of improved varieties and hybrid varieties, these chickens give higher income to farmers.
The university’s regional research center is promoting two native varieties of chicken – hybrid and improved varieties- to cater to different segments of farmers. In Tamil Nadu, the hybrid poultry varieties are ‘Namakkal 1’, ‘Namakkal 2’. And the other hybrid varieties are ‘Giriraja’, ‘vanaraja’, and ‘Swarnadhara’. Some of the improved varieties include ‘Nandhanam 1’, ‘Nandhanam 2’, which are meant for meat.
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Tamil Nadu country chicken scheme
Tamil Nadu country chicken scheme registration online
Poultry farming has developed on a commercial scale in the western districts of Tamil Nadu with Namakkal being the hub of development. The state government provides a 25% front-end subsidy for setting up poultry farms. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and commercial/national banks and poultry integrators are closely involved in the implementation of this scheme.
Benefits of poultry farming in rural areas
- Firstly, Development of Women Candidates in Rural Areas.
- Then, sources of income have also been generated.
- Most importantly, it increases employment opportunities.
- Starting a poultry farm requires only a small amount of investment. Also, this farming requires less water.
- In addition, it can be considered a constant source of income. Because of this, poultry products provide high nutrition.
- There are two types of products made from chicken, first egg and then meat. In the end, the poultry business did not make a profit in a short time.
A key feature of this scheme
- Women have been empowered with the help of this scheme. Because women are not developing in rural areas yet. Because of this scheme they can become empowered.
- It promotes poultry farming in rural areas. Since the entire scheme is based on chicken farming, the villagers also understand the benefits of the poultry business. Also, it encourages poultry farming in rural areas.
- Chicken breeds are available under the scheme. Because there are types in the market. Therefore, the government has done its best to help the people of the state. In addition, the government has provided 50 domestic chicken breeds to help rural women in poultry farming.
- The area of implementation under this scheme has also been decided. The Tamil Nadu government has launched the scheme in rural areas of every district of the state. But these are only considered rural areas.
- The total number of beneficiaries of the project. About 77,000 women candidates have been considered for opening their poultry farms. However, the Tamil Nadu government has launched several schemes for the development of the state.
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Poultry farming loans in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu Grama Bank offers poultry loans to meet the financial needs of farmers.
- Establishment of farms for commercial egg production (layer farms).
- Establishment of a farm for commercial broiler production (broiler farm).
- Establishment of hatcheries for production of egg or broiler-type commercial day-old chicks.
- Purchase of high-yielding dairy animals. Poultry shed, milking shed construction, feed room, and water facilities, etc., as part of poultry project.
Who is eligible?
Individuals, registered partnership firms, cooperatives, and companies are eligible. The farmer should have considerable experience in dairy farming. The farmer should have the provision of green fodder, the proper place to keep the animals, proper veterinary facilities, certain marketing facilities.
All individual farmer/farmer groups with the required infrastructure and technical background are eligible for poultry farming.
Disease prevention/control for poultry birds
Poultry sheds and equipment hygiene conditions, balanced diet, fresh clean water, healthy chickens are essential to prevent diseases. Avoid entering the farm, especially inside the shed. Use the proper vaccination schedule. Use high-quality vaccines purchased from reputable manufacturers. Keep the vaccine in a cool, dry place away from sunlight. Any surviving vaccine should be disposed of properly. Vaccines should not be used after they have expired.
Any dead bird should be noted and then immediately removed from the shed. After that, sent to the laboratory for postmortem or properly buried or burned in the poultry shed. Dispose of farm waste properly. Different laborers should work in brooding and laying sheds. Any bird that shows signs of disease should be removed from the shed and cut. Then, it can be sent to a laboratory for diagnosis.
Birds that show high symptoms of the disease should be shown to a qualified veterinarian and given appropriate medicine/treatment according to the recommendations of the / drug maker. Poultry manure, if infected, can spread the disease from one batch to another. Keep the litter dry, remove it after the herd is sold, and dispose of the fertilizer properly and quickly. Keep proper records of mortality and its causes and treatment of birds. Vaccination dates for each herd should be entered accurately. Rats are important carriers of poultry disease. Avoid rats. Use appropriate rat poisons/rat traps.
When you need to give medicine, pour water in the poultry sheds last evening. Give the medicine in the amount of water the next morning, this way the whole medicine will be taken quickly and the medicine will not be wasted. Mild infection of the disease may not cause death but it will reduce the growth. Keep a record of body weight, mortality, and egg production patterns for farmers. If you are underweight or have low egg production, study the possible causes and take steps to improve the management of later batches. Records/results are constantly monitored and analyzed to maintain efficiency in farming.
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The pattern of the spread of diseases
Diseases are usually spread from infected birds to healthy birds and also from external sources such as climate, pollution, etc. Some diseases are transmitted from parents to chicks through eggs. Moving chickens/adult birds from one place to another is also a means of spreading the disease. Diseases can also be spread by poultry merchants, farm visitors and rats, and insects.
Ways to prevent the diseases
First of all, the root cause should be identified which will help prevent the spread of the disease. The following guidelines will help control the diseases;
- Buy healthy chickens from good and famous hatcheries.
- Avoid overcrowding of birds on the farm.
- The external and internal environment should be clean.
- After identification, diseased/dead birds should be sent for autopsy to determine the cause of death. Dead birds should be destroyed by cremation or deep burial and sick birds should be treated immediately.
- Get vaccinated on time. Do not allow any visitors to enter the form without proper protection. Feet and shoes must be dipped in a disinfectant dip before entering the farm/shed.
- Keep trash dry and disinfect all equipment used inside the shed and keep them clean. Consultation with a veterinarian and its importance Birds that look dull and do not eat food or water has been observed to be drowsy as the first sign of the disease.
- Egg production is reduced or stopped altogether. Sometimes bloody diarrhea, stroke, sudden death without any symptoms. In such cases, it is necessary to consult a veterinarian and visit the farm for early diagnosis of any disease. Samples collected from infected birds are sent to laboratories for analysis and diagnostic tests to avoid further damage.
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