Introduction to Rohu Fish Farming Project Report:
If you are into commercial fish famring, you should consider for Rohu Fish. You can get a Rohu Fish Farming Project Report details at the bottom of this article.
The Rohu or roho labeo Labeo rohita is a species belongs to the family Cyprinidae found in rivers in South Asia.It is a large, silver coloured fish and typical cyprinid in shape with clear arched head. It is an omnivore and is used in aquaculture extensively. Rohu is a fresh water bony fish and is famous in India and South Asia. It has become popular because of its taste and demand in the market. It is commonly found in tropical and temperate zones. The term aquaculture includes all forms of aquatic animals and plants in fresh, brackish and salt waters. In global aquatic food production, aquaculture has become an ever increasing share. For better utilization of resources, fish farming can be combined with agriculture, animal husbandry and irrigation practices which in turn gives higher production and net profits. This practice is called integrated fish farming. As it does not breed in Lake Ecosystem, induced spawning is necessary for culturing. It is considered as a game fish. The other names of Rohu are rui, or roho labeo Labeo rohita. Rohu is commonly eaten by the people of Tripura, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal, Bhojpur and Uttar Pradesh in India. Other states include Bangladesh, Nepal. Adult Rohu fish can attain a weight of 45 kilograms and maximum length of 2 meters, but the average length is around 1⁄2 meter.
Read: Fish Farming FAQs.
Characteristics of Rohu fish:
- Rohu is a fresh water fish.
- It has a smooth body with an elliptical mouth.
- It is a freshwater fish
- They have a streamlined body with a large oval gaping mouth ringed with thick lips.
- It has bilaterally symmetrical body with extended body.
- No scales found on the head.
- Eyes, pelvic and pectoral fins are dorso-laterally positioned.
- The body is bluish black on the back and silver on the belly and sides.
- They live up to 10 years and attains maturity in 2-5 years.
- They have white and non-oily textured flesh.
- They release sperms and eggs in the areas are deep and shallow rivers Induced spawning is essential as they do not breed in calm waters.
- They cannot survive below 14°C
Rohu Fish Farming Practices:
Selection of Pond: Rohu is cultivated in the pond. It is away from flood prone area. Well drained pond with enough water retention capacity is needed. The pond must be away from flood prone area. The soil in the pond must be well drained and must have enough water retention capacity. Derelict of ponds has been de-sanitization, dewatering, and repair of embankments. Proper provision for inlet and outlet have been provided. New ponds have been exhumed. Pump sets, sheds and electricity arrangements have been provided. It is very important to maintain pond properly before and after stocking the fish seed.
Pre-stocking: This operation is the removal of weeds, debris and fish from previous cultivation. Removal of weeds by using effective herbicides. Other fish can be removed by sun drying of waterbed or by repeated netting. Mahuva oil cake 2500 kilograms per one hectare is used to kill the fish.
Breeding of Rohu: Generally, Rohu fish attains maturity at three years of age. The female Rohu lays 3 lakh eggs approximately. April to July is the best period for laying of eggs. It lays eggs in open waters.
Rohu Seed Collection:
The Seed source is available from fresh lakes, reservoirs, water rivers and canals. In almost all the countries, the commercial Rohu fish breed culture is common and induced breeding plays a major role for the entire seed requirement.
Rearing fingerlings of Rohu:
Poly-culture system is used in Rohu fish farming. Generally, Rohu is cultured with Catla in two species or Mrigal and Catla in three species. These three species have different zones for their habitat in the water body. Rohu can also be reared with silver carp or glass carp.
Read: Mud Crab Farming Fattening.
Fertilizers and manure application:
To enhance the fertility of the soil, fertilizers and manure have been applied. The pond soil is analyzed prior to adding nutrients. Organic and inorganic fertilizers have been applied. Depending on climatic conditions, the growth of the fish, and nutrient content of the pond, fertilizers have to be altered. Cow dung or any such manure has been applied 3 days after liming. After 15 days, inorganic fertilizers have been applied. Nitrogen and Phosphorous have been added in appropriate quantities.
Feeding of Rohu fish:
It is a planktivorous surface feeder. The feeding habit changes from fingerlings stage onwards. The fish feeds in water on algae, mud, sand, decomposed vegetation. It feeds on aquatic vegetation with its fringed lips. It is also capable of filter feeding with its gill rakers. Intensity of feeding varies with season, environment, size and the reproductive cycle. When reaching the maturity stage, the feeding increases when compared to immature stage. At the matured stage, feeding intensity decreases. After spawning, the fish feeds actively. This fluctuations in feeding are prominent in females than in males. Rohu prefers phyto-planktons.
Harvesting of Rohu fish:
By following proper methods, we can expect 4-5 tones of fish at an average per hectare. Harvesting can be done after one year. Fish reaches 800 grams at the time of harvesting. Harvesting can be done on the demand of Rohu fish and season. Partial dewatering or repeated netting can be done to harvest the Rohu fish. Sometimes, fish harvesting can be done with complete dewatering.
Packaging and Marketing of Fresh Harvest of Rohu:
Fresh fish can be sold immediately after harvesting. Generally, 1 kilogram weight of fish can be more sold in the market. Fish can be packed in ice and then made ready for exporting. Trucks and air transport have been used according to the distances.
Diseases and control measures in Rohu fish farming:
Bacterial gill disease: Myxobacterial complex has been found in the affected gills Fingerlings causes retarded growth and poor survival.
Control: Short baths in 3% common salt solution found more effective than antibiotics. Two subsequent treatments with a gap of one week cures the disease.
Fungal disease: This causes extensive loss. It occurs at post spawning time. It appears as white spots. White mats appeared initially on the skin, which spreads gradually to deeper tissues and cause death. Eggs are attacked in all the stages.
Control: Malachite green zinc free grade, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate salt are common therapeutics for effective use. Copper sulphate may also be used for pond treatment.
Rohu fish farming project report / Economics of Rohu fish/ Marketing and Cost calculation / hectare (2.4 acres):
|Expenditure per 1 hectare|
|Cost in Rupees (approximately)|
|Power and diesel||6, 000.00|
|Total cost||Rs. 2,70,200|
No. of fingerlings stocked in pond per 1 hectare (2.4 acres) = 8000 to10,000
No. of fingerlings sustained at an average = 9000 (Assuming that the Rohu fish mortality rate in the pond is about = 10 to 20%).
Fish attains weight in 6 months = 700 to 800 grams
Taken average weight of fish = 750 grams
Total fish weight in grams= 9000 x 750 grams= 6,750 kilograms.
Cost of 1 kilogram of meat of Rohu=60.00 Rupees (if you sell in wholesale at your pond).
You can get the total returns from the sale of 6750 kg of Rohu = 6750 x 60 = 4,05,000.
Net profits in Rohu Fish Farming is : 4,05,000 – 2,70,200 = Rs1,34,800.
Fish farming can be done twice in a year, so one can obtain a profit of : Rs1,34,800 x 2 = Rs 2,69,600.
Read: Prawn Cultivation.