Introduction: Hello friends, we came up today with a profitable crop in polyhouse. Let us learn about Turmeric cultivation in polyhouse, and other cultural practices. Turmeric is also known as ‘Indian saffron’ is an important commercial spice crop grown in India. The major turmeric cultivation states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Turmeric scientifically known as Curcuma longa is a member of the ginger family prized for its distinct flavor, color, and medicinal value. It is most commonly and easily propagated by dividing the fleshy root and planting these segments.
Turmeric cultivation in India is very good business. Its production in India is about 78% of total production in the world. It can be grown as a mono-crop or with other plantation crops as intercrop. Turmeric plants reach about 1 meter (3.3 feet) in height and bear long simple leaves with long leaf stems. The plant leaves emerge from the branching rhizomes that lie just below the soil surface. The Turmeric plant is propagated from rhizomes. The plant leaves are long, broad, lanceolate and bright green. The Turmeric plant flowers are pale yellow and borne in dense spikes.
Turmeric cultivation in polyhouse for maximum profit
Different Turmeric varieties are given below;
CO1, BSR.1, Suguna, Suvarna, Sudharshana, Krishna, Sugundham, Roma, Suroma, Rajendra Sonia, Ranga, Rasmi.
Requirements for Turmeric cultivation in polyhouse
Polyhouses are naturally ventilated climate controlled. It provides ideal conditions necessary for a crop to get maximum yield of top quality round the year by the modern mechanism.
Polyhouses are built of a Pre-Galvanized channel cum Tubular structure and Polyethylene film wherein different crops are grown under a favorable controlled environment and other conditions.
In developing countries like India, polyhouse cultivation is a popular greenhouse technology due to its low cost of construction and very easy maintenance. The size of the polyhouse structure can differ from small shacks to big-size buildings as per the need. The Turmeric plants inside the polyhouse cultivation are hale and hearty. Fertilizer application is easier and is controlled automatically with the help of a drip irrigation system. Polyhouse gives the right environmental facilities to plants in any season. Turmeric plants are grown under controlled temperature thus there are fewer chances of crop loss or damage.
Polyhouse also increases yield for about 5 to 10 times. Polyhouse cultivation provides an optimum environmental medium for better crop growth to gain maximum yield and high-quality products.
Soil requirement for Turmeric cultivation
- Different kinds of soils such as sandy loam to clay loam or alluvial soils are suitable for Turmeric cultivation. Well-drained loamy soils are the best suitable.
- The soil must be rich in organic matter and uniform in texture.
- Rich loamy soils having natural drainage and irrigation facilities are the best and Turmeric cannot withstand water stagnation or alkalinity.
Turmeric propagation by seed
Turmeric seeds are typically difficult to get, as most flowers fail to generate fruit and the vast majority of propagation occurs through the rhizomes. Seed germination rates can differ greatly depending on the specific cross, resultant plants can have few leaves. The mother rhizome takes multiple years to get to full size. Turmeric seeds are either dark or light brown color with a white aril and smooth surface.
In polyhouse, sow the Turmeric seeds on moist filter paper or light, well-drained germinating medium and keep it in dark conditions. Turmeric seed germination rates vary widely, but most germinate within 20 days of sowing. Plant the seedlings in sterile, well-drained sand once they are about 1 1/2 inches tall, and transplant them into polyhouse or their permanent container after two to three weeks.
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Turmeric plant in polyhouse needs a lot of manure for growth. Therefore, the rhizomes are covered with rotten cattle manure and then sowed. They can be covered with Trichoderma mixed compost. Powdered neem cake is mixed with soil and is applied in the pits prepared for sowing. Approximately, 1000kg rhizomes are required for planting in one acre of land. If Turmeric plant is being used as an inter-crop then the seed rate can be as low as 125kg per acre.
Whole or split mother and finger rhizomes are used for planting and well developed healthy and disease-free rhizomes are to be chosen. The seed rhizomes are treated with mancozeb 0.3% (3 g/L of water) for 30 minutes, shade dried for 3 to 4 hours and planted.
At the time of planting 25 g powdered neem cake mix well with soil is useful in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows. Seed rhizomes can be put in shallow pits and covered with well rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma (10 gm compost inoculated with Trichoderma). A Turmeric seed rate of 1000 kg rhizomes is required for planting one acre of land.
The watering requirement for Turmeric cultivation in polyhouse
Turmeric plant needs plenty of moisture but does not like to sit in wet soil. Amend heavy clay soils to allow excellent drainage. Water plants enough to maintain soil evenly moist.
Manuring application for Turmeric cultivation in polyhouse
Farmyard manure (FYM) or compost is applied by broadcasting and plowed at the time of preparation of land by spreading over the beds or into the pits at the time of planting. Zinc may also be applied at the time of planting and organic manures like oil cakes can also be applied. In such a case, the dosage of Farmyard manure can be reduced. Integrated application of coir compost combined with FYM, biofertilizer (Azospirillum) and half recommended a dose of NPK are also recommended.
Mulching of Turmeric plants
Mulching the beds with green leaves is a very important practice beneficial to this crop when planting is done on raised beds. This helps to improve germination of seed rhizomes, prevents wash off of soil due to heavy rains, adds organic matter to the soil and conserves moisture during the dry period. Care may be taken to include a mix of leguminous crops with plant leaves rich in nitrogen content, phosphorus content like Acalypha weed and potassium content like Calotropis as mulch.
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The first mulching is to be done at the time of planting with green leaves @ 4 to 5 tonnes per acre. It is to be repeated @ 2 tonnes per acre at the 50th day after planting. Cow dung slurry can be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Weeding can be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Such materials can be used for mulching. Suitable drainage channels are to be provided in the inter rows to drain off stagnant water.
Turmeric plant care
Pests: If shoot borer incidence is noticed, such shoots can be cut open and larve picked out and destroyed. If necessary neem oil 0.5% can be sprayed at fortnightly intervals.
Diseases: No major disease is noticed in the Turmeric plant. Leaf spot and leaf blotch could be controlled by restricted use of Bordeaux mixture 1%. Application of Trichoderma at the time of planting can verify the incidence of rhizome rot.
Harvesting process of Turmeric:
Depending on the variety, Turmeric is ready for harvest within 7 to 9 months of sowing. While the aromatic ones mature in 7 months, the intermediate type variety takes 8 months and the late variety 9 months. They are ready for harvest when the leaves and stem start turning brown color and dry up progressively. Once dried, the polyhouse land is plowed and the rhizomes are extracted. The extraction process can be done by hand-picking or carefully lifting the clumps with a spade and the stems are cut an inch above the rhizomes. To clean them from mud and other extraneous matter, the rhizomes are washed and cleaned. The finger rhizomes are then carefully separated from the mother rhizomes. Then, the mother rhizomes are stored as seed rhizomes for the next cycle and The finger rhizomes are then cured to extract Turmeric.
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