Introduction: Hello farmers, today we discuss the Ajwain Cultivation income, yield per acre and profits. Ajwain or Carom seeds are the most prominent spice resembling caraway and cumin. It belongs to the Umbelliferae; Apiaceae family. Its scientific name is Trachyspermum ammi. Carom seeds or Ajwain are pale brown, oval-shaped schizocarps. It tastes bitter with a pungent smell and has a flavor similar to oregano.
A guide to Ajwain Cultivation income, costs involved, and profits
Cultivation of Carom seeds or Ajwain bring profits to the farmers as they can be cultivated even in drought conditions. It has many medicinal and culinary benefits, hence it has a great demand in the market which makes farmers choose it for cultivation. Irrigation plays a crucial role in Carom seeds or Ajwain cultivation, as Ajwain is very sensitive to water. India is the leading producer of Carom seeds or Ajwain. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Rajasthan are major producers of Carom seeds or Ajwain in India.
Importance of Carom seeds or Ajwain
It is a very popular spice worldwide and has a great demand for export to other countries. Food processing industries are major consumers of these Carom seeds or Ajwain. The demand for Carom seeds or Ajwain is throughout the year and hence it would be the first choice for the cultivation of spice. Carom seeds or Ajwain has many medical and Ayurvedic applications hence it has a great demand for production. Hydrodistillation of Carom seeds or Ajwain yields an essential oil that contains thymol, gamma-terpinene, and p-cymene and also more than 20 trace compounds. Thymol chemical in Carom seeds or Ajwain helps to speed up the digestion by releasing gastric juices from the stomach. It has great anti-inflammatory and curative properties and hence it is used for pregnant and lactating mothers. It is good medicine to get rid of rheumatism and arthritis pains. It is also used as a local anesthetic and anti-fungal compound. Carom seeds or Ajwain have Niacin and thymol along with vitamins that help to maintain heart health, improve nerve impulses and also the circulation within the heart.
It grows in all types of soils but yields more in loamy or clayey loams. It grows well in both dry and under irrigation. The seeds have to be sown in August to November. Well-drained soils are ideal for Carom seeds or Ajwain cultivation. Sandy soils are not at all suitable for the cultivation of Carom seeds or Ajwain. Land preparation is not much required for Carom seeds or Ajwain cultivation. The land has to be ploughed till it attains fine tilth by separating weeds and other wastage.
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Carom seeds or Ajwain can be cultivated through seeds or cuttings but most of the studies proved that seed propagation has yielded more. The period from October to November is ideal for sowing the seeds. Seeds are sown in the field by using the drilling method or dibbling method, most of the farmers adapt spreading the seeds directly into the field but it takes more than 1 week for germination. The spreading method requires 0.5 Kg per acre whereas the drilling method requires 1-2 Kg of seeds. Spacing should be 60-90 cm for seed drilling method whereas for ridges and furrows 45×45 cm should be maintained.
Fertilizers like FYM of 0.2 Kg per acre are required and a manure of 0.2 Kg is added to the soil for better yield.
Carom seeds or Ajwain are very sensitive to waterlogging hence extreme care should be taken for its cultivation. Irrigation should be done at an interval of 2-3 weeks in few lands irrigation should be done during the flowering time. The proper drainage system should be maintained waterlogging. 5-6 irrigations are enough for this crop.
Weeds are the major issue for this crop hence weeding should be done carefully either by using manual methods or by spraying chemicals. Aphids and Powdery Mildew affects the yield drastically hence these should be controlled by spraying chemicals.
The fruit matures at 120-140 days after sowing. The Ajwain fruits are greyish brown ovoid aromatic cremocarps with a single seed. Usually, the harvesting stage comes within six months. Harvesting is done by using thresher or by beating the removed plants with sticks.
The yield of Ajwain
On average, the rain-fed crop gives 4 quintals per acre whereas the irrigated crop produces 7 quintals per acre. These can be sold to the spice processing units or the local wholesalers or the pharmaceutical companies based on their demands. A farmer has to determine the ways or marketing before staring the Carom seeds or Ajwain cultivation to get more income, as they are in demand throughout the year.
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Costs involved in Carom seeds or Ajwain cultivation per 1 acre
Land preparation = Rs. 2,000
Seed cost= Rs. 2,000
Manures = Rs. 2,000
Fertilizers= Rs. 3,000
Plant protection= Rs. 2,000
Irrigation = Rs. 2,000
Labour Charges = Rs. 10,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs. 5,000
Packaging materials = Rs. 3,000
10% of total cost = Rs. 3,100
Total cost = Rs. 34,100
Ajwain cultivation Income returns
Farm gate price of 1 Kg of Carom seeds or Ajwain seeds = Rs. 130 per Kg.
For 1 quintal the Farm gate price = 130 x 100 = Rs. 13,000 per quintal. So the income for the average yield of 5 quintals = 5 x 13,000 = Rs. 65,000.
Profit = Income – costs involved = Rs.65,000 – Rs.34,100 = Rs. 30,900. Hence the profit is Rs. 30,900 per 1 acre.
Carom seeds or Ajwain is the most suitable spice crop that can be grown well in dryland conditions. There is a huge demand in the global market and is increasing over the years as it has many proven medicinal properties. It is having the highest net returns of Rs. 30,900 per acre which is mainly due to the high market price and demand for the Carom seeds or Ajwain. Hence, it is economical and most suitable for farmers with less investment but the crop is more labor-intensive. Intercropping can also be done but care should be taken for irrigation.
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