Introduction: Hello farmers, how bout Clove farming project report with cultivation income and other economics in 1 acre farming. Clove is a dry, fully grown unopened flower bud of the clove tree (Syzygiumaromaticum) having an aroma.
Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka are the leading producers of Clove in India. Clove belongs to the family Myrtaceae. Clove can be grown in all the areas except in coastal sandy belt.
Clove farming project report, cultivation income, and profits
It has a good demand in the international markets as well as in the local ones. It has many health benefits for example- Clove oil is treated for the sore tooth, helps in improving digestion, clears respiratory infection, etc.
Commercial varieties of Cloves
These include Amboyna, Penang, Zanzibar.
Climate requirement for production of Clove spice
It grows well in warm, humid and tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 150-250cm and an altitude of 800-900m.Clove cultivation gives best yield in a cooler climate with well-distributed rainfall-this is mainly ideal during flowering stage.
The kind of soil is required for Clove plantation
Rich loamy soils, red soils of the midlands are ideal for clove cultivation. The land must have proper drainage system as the crop cannot withstand waterlogged conditions.
Seeds and sowing of Cloves
Clove crops are propagated through seeds which are obtained from fully developed fruits called as mother of clove. Seeds can be collected by dehusking the mother cloves by soaking in water for overnight and by peeling the pericarp. This method showed highest percentage of germination. Sow the seeds immediately after peeling.
Preparation of beds for clove seedlings
Prepare a suitable bed for sowing the seeds with 15-20cm height, and 1m width. These beds are prepared by mixing fertile soil rich in humus and has to be loose in texture. Seeds are planted at a depth of about 2cm with a spacing of 3cm. These beds have to be prepared in a shade and need to be protected from the sunlight. A mixture of cow dung and soil can also be used to prepare the beds. It takes 15-20 days for germination. After germination these seedlings are transplanted into polythene bags filled with a mixture of soil, cow dung, and sand in a ratio of 3:1:3.
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Clove planting materials
The best planting season for Clove plantation is June –July. Prepare pits of size 75x75x75cm with a spacing of 7m. These pits should be filled with compost, green leaf, and cattle manure and should be covered with the topsoil. Clove plantlets prefer particle shade with higher elevations and well-distributed rainfall.
Manures and fertilizer requirement
Compost or cattle manure- 50Kg
Bone Meal – 3 Kg per tree per year
N:P:K : 1:1:2 in initial stages whereas, it has to be increased to 3:3:15 per year for a grown-up tree.
These must be applied in equal doses in May to June and September to October.
Diseases of Clove plants
1.Seedling wilt can be controlled by removing the infected plants and spraying 0.1% carbendazim. It can also be controlled by spraying Bordeaux mixture 1% and Copperoxychloride 0.2%.
2. Leaf rot can be controlled by spraying 0.1% carbendazim.It can also be controlled by spraying Bordeaux mixture 1% and Copperoxychloride 0.2%.
3.Leaf Spot and Buds Shedding can be controlled by 1% Bordeaux mixture.
Insect Pests of Clove plants
Stem Borer can be controlled by spraying Quinalphos 0.1% and swabbing the region with Carbaryl.
Scale insects can be controlled by removing the affected regions and spraying dimethoate 0.05%.
How and when to irrigate Clove plants
Irrigation is necessary for the first 3-4 years, care should be taken to keep the soil moisture at a minimum level. Over irrigation results in waterlogging and hence only minimum irrigation is required just to maintain the soil moisture. Irrigation is not necessary during rainy season. The well-developed drainage system should be maintained to prevent waterlogged conditions during rainy seasons.
Pruning of Clove trees
To maintain the trees in bushy shape coppicing method is followed which has to be done at the age of 2-3 years and in the months of June to July.
How to control weeds in Clove plantation
Weeding should be done by hand-picked methods.
Harvesting procedure of Cloves
Clove trees start flowering at an age of 4 years after plantation. The clove trees attain the full bearing stage in 15th year only. Buds are harvested when the base of the clove is turned from green to pink and the spice is obtained after drying. After the removal of buds from the stem drying should be done immediately if not they get fermented and the spice will have a whitish appearance. The buds are spread uniformly on the drying floor and are raked time to time to ensure the development of uniform color and to prevent mould formation. If the cloves are dried hot sunny weather then the drying can be completed within 4-5 days giving a bright brown color with attractive appearance, it will not bend when pressed. At this stage, they will be less than 2cm long. The closed buds have more value in the market as a spice. But the opened flowers are not valued. Harvesting has to be done very carefully without damaging the branches as this might cause adverse effects on subsequent flowering. 1Kg of Cloves contains 13,000-15,000 of dried cloves. Clove cultivation in 1 acre yields approximately about 15-20 tons of dried cloves.
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Costs involved in Clove Cultivation per 1 acre
Land preparation = Rs. 30,000
Planting materials = Rs. 40,000
Manures and fertilizers= Rs. 40,000
Plant protection= Rs. 5,000
Irrigation = Rs. 5,000
Labour Charges = Rs. 50,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs. 3,000
10% of total cost = Rs. 17,300
Total cost = Rs. 1,90,300 per year
These costs add till 4 years as the flowering starts at the age of 4th year, so the costs have to be added till 4 years= Rs. 1,90,300 x 4= Rs. 7,61, 200.
Income returns from Clove farming
Income starts in the 4th year. The Farm gate price per 1 Kg of dried Cloves – Rs. 80 per Kg. The yield will be 15 tons per acre. So income per 1 acre of dried Cloves = 80 x15000= Rs. 12,00,000 in 4th year.
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Profit and Returns from commercial clove cultivation
Profit = Income- Total cost incurred = Rs.12,00,000 – Rs.7,61,200 = Rs. 4,38,800 per acre. Hence the profit is Rs. 4,38,800per acre which can be seen in the 4th year. Hence, the yearly profit goes up to nearly one lakh. Hope you enjoyed the project report of clove farming. You must understand the figures mentined just for your reference only and actual values may vary depending on many factors.
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