Layer Poultry Feed Formulation in India – A Full Guide

Introduction: Layer poultry feed formula in India is the technique of quantifying the amounts of feed elements that want to be blended to form a single uniform mixture (food regimen) for a hen that component all in their nutrient requirements. Since feed debts for 65-75% of total manufacturing costs for most of the layers, a simple mistake in the food plan method can be extremely high-priced for a chicken producer. Let’s get into the details of layer poultry feed formulation.

A step by step guide to layer poultry feed formulation

You can also feed your birds with home-prepared balanced feed. In the case of preparing feeds via your own, you may make certain availability of all sorts of required elements (energy, protein, nutrients, and minerals) of their feed. And it’s honestly higher than commercially organized feeds. Because, while making ready the feeds via your own, you may always take a look at the exceptional of feed elements and pick the first-class factors to your feed mixture. This will make certain a wholesome life, better boom, and maximum manufacturing out of your layer fowl farming business.

A guide to Layer Poultry Feed Formula.
A guide to Layer Poultry Feed Formula.

For layer feed formula, you need to understand the following important things:

(a) nutrient requirements of the class of poultry (e.g., egg layers, meat chickens or breeders);

(b) feed ingredients in terms of nutrient composition and constraints in terms of nutrition and processing, and

(c) cost and availability of the ingredients.

Most large-scale rooster farmers have their personal nutritionists and feed mills, while small operations generally depend upon representative nutritionists and business feed turbines for their feeds. It is therefore critical that formulations are correct because once feeds are formulated and manufactured, it is frequently too overdue to treatment any mistakes or inaccuracies without incurring widespread expenses.

Cereal grains

Cereal grains form the most important feed for layers as they form the important sources of diet elements. These include Maize/Corn, Bajra, Millets, Rice, and Jowar, etc.

Maize or corn in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Maize is the major energy source used in poultry diets especially in most countries due to its high energy value, palatability, presence of pigments, and essential fatty acids.
  • It contains the highest amount of energy (ME 3350 kcal/kg) among cereal grains.
  • It has 8-13% of crude protein.
  • It has a high TDN of 85-90%.
  • Maize has low fiber content and is highly palatable.
  • Extremely low in calcium and poor in nutrition B12 however honest in phosphorus content material.
  • Yellow maize affords carotene and xanthophylls pigments for coloration of egg yolk, poultry fats, and pores, and skin when it is used at 30% and above in the diet.
  • Maize is a brilliant supply of linoleic acid which contributes to egg size, and maize protein is especially deficient in tryptophan and lysine.
  • Damaged, immature and improperly saved maize having higher moisture content material is susceptible to Aspergillusflavus infestation and produces aflatoxin.
  • Supplementation of toxin binders in food plans containing damaged maize grain is critical to decreasing the threat of mycotoxins problem.
  • Organic acids have to be delivered to the maize whilst storing if the moisture content material inside the grain is higher than 16%.
  • When the maize is used at >30% in the pellet eating regimen, supplementation of pellet binders, molasses, rice bran, or oil is required for a better first-rate pellet.
  • Maize can be protected up to 70% in the chicken ration.

You should not miss the Hydroponic Farming Business Plan.

Sorghum/Jowar in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Sorghum carries barely lower power but extra protein than maize (ME 3200 kcal/kg; Protein 10%).
  • Sorghum protein is a deficit in lysine, methionine, and arginine.
  • Light-colored sorghum varieties may be used because of the principal strength supply.
  • Darker varieties, which can be chook resistant, can contain tannins in the seed coat and need to be used less.
  • Higher stages of tannin in sorghum may reduce the palatability and thereby feed intake. While tannin unfastened sorghum may be used as a sole supply of energy in layer eating regimen without affecting egg production, egg weight, and energy efficiencies.
  • It may be covered up to 30% in chicks ration and up to 60% inside the grower and layer rations.
layer Feed Pellets.
layer Feed Pellets.

Wheat in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Wheat is rich in protein and calcium and however low in fat and electricity in comparison to maize.
  • Wheat is a great supply subsequent to maize and sorghum (ME 3100 kcal/kg).
  • Its protein content material is fantastically variable (11-14%).
  • Wheat protein is poor in methionine and threonine.
  • Wheat contains indigestible non-starch polysaccharides (arabinoxylans) that reduce the performance of poultry.
  • The enzyme, xylanase, may be used whilst wheat is included in feed at an excessive level.
  • It may be blanketed up to 20% in chick ration and up to 30% in grower and layer rations.

Rice/Rice broken in layer poultry feed formulation

  • The ME content material of damaged rice degrees from 2400- 3250 kcal/kg.
  • Rice is low in protein (7-8%).
  • Rice that is flawed for human consumption may be used for fowl at a low level.
  • Rice broken is a byproduct of milling. Its quality is plenty variable and good satisfactory rice broken can be used in rooster feeds.
  • Replacement of maize with rice is broken may boom fat deposition in the stomach area.
  • It may be protected up to 10% in chick ration and up to 20% in grower and layer rations.

Bajra/pearl millet in layer poultry feed formulation

  • They have 8-12% of crude protein and rich tannin content.
  • It can be included up to 30% in chick ration and up to 60% in grower and layer ration.

Ragi/finger millet in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Ragi incorporates slightly much less protein, fats, and extra crude fiber.
  • The quantity of Ca and P are higher in ragi in comparison to Maize.
  • High crude fiber and tannin content material and likely lower protein exceptional are the limiting factors in ragi for its utilization in hen diets.
  • It can be blanketed up to 30% in chick ration and up to 60% in grower and layer rations.

Vegetable proteins

Soya bean meal

  • Soya bean meal carries 47-49% protein and is an awesome supply of lysine, tryptophan, and threonine however it is deficient in methionine.
  • The not unusual adulterant consists of castor husk and Mahua oil cake.
  • Like other oil seeds, raw soybeans have a quantity of poisonous and inhibitory substances.
  • These toxic, inhibitory substances and different elements in soya bean-like saponins may be inactivated by proper heat remedy at some stage in processing.
  • It may be covered as much as 35% in chick ration and up to 25% in grower and layer ration.

Groundnut oil cake/peanut meal in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Groundnut oilcake has approximately 40-47% protein that is very rich in arginine and poor in cystein, tryptophan, methionine, and lysine, however, top supply of Vitamin B12 and calcium.
  • Groundnut oil meal refers to solvent extracted residue and grades (Grade I & Grade II) are to be had within the market.
  • Groundnut oilcake refers to expeller pressed and varieties (Grade I & Grade II) are available in the market.
  • The common adulterant includes castor husk and Mahua oil cake.
  • The addition of toxin binders and liver tonics is vital in diets containing higher ranges of groundnut oil cake.
  • Proper processing of the nuts is vital to deactivate the protease inhibitors present in the nuts.
  • Groundnut cake may be used up to 35% in chick rations and up to 25% in the grower and layer rations.

You may also like the Loans and Subsidies for Beekeeping Business.

Vegetable Proteins in Layer Feed,
Vegetable Proteins in Layer Feed,

Aflatoxin affection

  • In the rainy season it’s far especially labile to include a toxic factor – Aflatoxins, a secondary metabolite of Aspergillusflavus.
  • Mould spoilage and Aflatoxin production can arise at any stage from developing crop to the formulated feed or stored raw material.
  • Aflatoxins are the maximum potent toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic metabolities produced by using the species of Aspergillusflavus and A.Parasiticus on food and feed materials.
  • The presence of oxygen, conductive temperature (10 – 40ºC), and high humidity favor mould growth.
  • High moisture in the crop, which harvested around the wet length and additionally inadequately dried products, favors fungal growth and toxin production.
  • There are 4 Aflatoxins, B1, G1, B2, and G2 out of which B1 is maximum toxic.

Sunflower oil cake in layer poultry feed formulation

  • The protein nice of sunflower cake is higher than groundnut cake may also be due to its higher to be had lysine and methionine content.
  • Sunflower oilcake incorporates 40% of protein.
  • It has a very brief shelf-life.
  • The expeller kind of Sunflower seed meal or cake has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • It may be covered up to 10% in chick ration and up to 20% in grower and layer rations.

Coconut meal in layer poultry feed formulation

  • It carries 20-26% crude protein with low lysine and histidine content and 2.5-6.5% oil content material.
  • The higher oil meals have a tendency to get rancid and may cause diarrhoea; for this reason, low oil content material meals need to be preferred.
  • It ought to be limited to poultry as it carries low protein and high fibre.

Linseed meal in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Linseed is a wealthy protein supply with low methionine and lysine content and additionally wealthy in phosphorus part of which is present as phytate but has handiest moderate calcium content.
  • It is a high supply of nutrients like riboflavin, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid, and choline.
  • It additionally has protective action in opposition to selenium poisoning.
  • Linseed oil meal refers to solvent extracted residue and grades (Grade I; grade II) are available inside the market.
  • Among the oilseed residues, linseed is particular because it with ease dispersible in water, forming a viscous slime due to the presence of 3-10% of mucilage.
  • Cyanogenetic glycoside, linamarin, and a related enzyme, linase in immature linseed hydrolyses it with the evolution of hydrocyanic acid.
  • HCN is a potent respiratory inhibitor and hence, relying on the species the minimum lethal dose taken orally has been anticipated as 0.five-3.5 mg/kg of body weight.
  • Proper water washing, drying, and storage can reduce glycosides in the feedstuffs.
  • Linseed oilcake refers to expeller pressed and varieties (Grade I; grade II) are to be had in the market.
  • It can be included up to 3% in chick ration and up to five% in grower and layer ration.
  • Mustard cake/ Rapeseed meal
  • The mustard cake is a fairly right supply of crude protein (31-36%), lysine, and methionine.
  • Its TDN value is 74 % and ME is 2, two hundred kcal/kg.
  • It can be covered up to 3% in chick ration and up to five% in grower and layer ration.
  • It has wealthy calcium and phosphorus content of about 0.6% and 0.1% respectively.
  • The utilization of mustard cake in the chicken diet isn’t common because of the presence of glucosinolates, erucic acid, tannin, and higher crude fiber.

Sesame seed meal/Gingelly oil cake/Til oil cake

  • It contains 40% protein, rich in leucine, arginine, and methionine however low lysine.
  • It was constructed from the residues of sesame meal after the elimination of oil from the sesame seed.
  • There are 3 varieties – red, black, white.
  • White is of excessive nutritive value than purple.
  • The ME content in black til cake is better than that of crimson variety (1,700 and 1,500 kcal/kg respectively).
  • It has high phytic acid and oxalates.
  • It may be covered up to 10% in chick ration and 15% in grower and layer ration.
  • Supplementation of lysine, phytase, and Zn will decorate the nutritive price of til cake for poultry.

In case if you miss this: Crops Suitable for Drip Irrigation.

Animal protein

Fish meal in layer poultry feed formulation

  • Fish is an excellent source of protein, containing adequate concentrations of limiting amino acids like lysine, methionine, and threonine.
  • It is also rich in available P, Ca, Se, iodine, and vitamin B12.
  • Fish meal is one of the best poultry feedstuffs and a good source of animal protein.
  • Its composition varies widely depending upon whether it is made from whole bony fish or fish canary scraps.
  • The protein content of the fish meal is usually around 60% with a digestibility of 93-95%.
  • The presence of fish scales reduces its feeding value.
  • It can be included up to 10% in the ration.

Meat meal

  • It is wealthy in crude protein (50- 55%) and ash (21%) with excessive calcium of about 8% and 4% phosphorus.
  • It is low in methionine and tryptophan.
  • Good resources of nutrients of B complex, especially riboflavin, choline, nicotinamide, and B12.
  • Meat and bone meal
  • Besides an amazing source of the excessive best protein, it is a superb supply of calcium and phosphorus.
  • The carcasses of unproductive and dead animals and offals from slaughterhouse waste are sterilized and made into meals.
  • The exceptional of the meal is variable depending upon the processing strategies and the percentage of gelatin it contains.
  • The variable best, contamination and content material of phosphorus restriction using those meals.
  • The sterilized meat and bone meal can be covered up to 5% in the rooster ration.

Milling by-products

The by-products such as rice bran, wheat bran, polishing, and molasses obtained after milling have high nutritious value hence it forms an excellent source for layer feed formulation-

Rice bran in layer poultry feed formulation

It is the outer coarse coat of the rice grain separated during processing.

  • Rice bran is a precious product with 12-14% of protein, 13% fiber, and 11-18% fat in general with unsaturated fatty acids, and subsequently, it becomes rancid rapidly.
  • The oil removed rice bran is to be had as deoiled rice bran.
  • It is a superb source of energy (ME 2900 kcal/kg) and B- complex organization of vitamins.
  • It is excessive in phytate (1.28%).
  • Antioxidants are endorsed while storing rice bran.
  • Rice bran has a very good amino acid profile in comparison to cereal grains and is barely deficient in lysine.
  • It may be protected up to 20% in the chick ration and 30% within the grower and layer ration.

Wheat bran in layer poultry feed formulation

Wheat bran is fantastic food with extra fiber content.

It is laxative when mashed with heated water however tends to counteract scouring when it turned into given dry.

It can be protected up to 5% in the chick ration and 10% inside the grower and layer ration.


  • During polishing of rice this gets accumulated which contains 10-15% protein, 12% fat, and 3-4% crude fiber.
  • It is rich in B- complex which is a rich source of energy.
  • Due to excessive fats, content material rancidity may occur.

Molasses in layer poultry feed formulation

It is a byproduct produced in the course of juice/extract prepared from selected plant material.

  • It is a focused water answer of sugars, hemicelluloses, and minerals.
  • Four varieties of molasses are common to be had viz. Cane molasses, beet molasses, citrus molasses, and timber molasses.
  • It is palatable, reduces dustiness, and improves pelleting.
  • Cane molasses is made of sugar enterprise and contains 3% protein with 10% ash.
  • Beet molasses is a product during the production of beet sugar and has higher protein (6%).
  • Citrus molasses is bitter in taste with the highest protein (14%) and produced when oranges or grapes are processed for juice.
  • Wood molasses is made of the paper industry with 2% protein.
  • Molasses is a superb supply of strength and an appetizer.
  • It reduces dustiness in ration and is very beneficial as a binder in pellet making.
  • It can be blanketed up to 2% inside the chick ration and 5% within the grower and layer ration.

Animal and vegetable fat

  • Fat (Vegetable/Animal) provides 2.25% more strength than carbohydrate or protein.
  • Oil and fats reduce the dustiness in feed and lessen the damage on feed mixing equipment.
  • Vegetable oil like corn oil, groundnut oil, sunflower oil, and animal fats like lard, tallow are significantly used in cattle feeding.
  • Animal fat contains saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids of C20, C22, and C24.
  • Vegetable fat comprises more percentage of linoleic acid.
  • A higher level of polyunsaturated fatty acids ends in rancidity and consequently, anti-oxidants like Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or Ethoxyquin must be protected in an excessive fats diet.

In case if you are interested in this:  Okra Growing Tips, Ideas, Secretes, and Techniques



  1. Hello sir
    I am kamlesh from panvel raigad
    I would like to know which is the best and high egg laying bird for layer poultry farming and wat feed with how make by ur guidance step by step and which goat is suitable for panvel raigad region for commercial meat purpose and from where to get it at what cost
    Thanking u


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here