A step by step guide to Green chilli farming in polyhouse
Green chilli cultivation in polyhouse is a good vegetable farming business. It is normally added as an ingredient in foods to make the preparation spicy. Green chilli cultivated through the year using polyhouse. Green chilli belongs to family Solanaceae and is botanically known as Capsicum frutescens.
Green chilli is the life and soul of every delicious Indian dishes and it has been cultivated for thousands of years. Green chilli forms a superb combination of healthy ingredients and essential nutrients. Green chilies are a rich source of vitamin E and vitamin C which make them a good spice for healthy skin.
Green chilli is a small, yearly shrub with a straight, branched shoot. It also has a tap root system with simple leaves. The most important Green chilli growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, which together constitute nearly 75 percent of the total area.
Climatic requirements for Green chilli farming:
Green chilli is a tropical and sub-tropical plant requiring a combination of warm, humid yet dry weather. During the growth phase, it needs warm and humid weather. However, dry weather is appropriate for fruit maturity.
In polyhouse, the temperature range of 20 to 25⁰C is ideal for Green chilli growth. At 37⁰C or higher, the fruit growth is affected. Similarly, in case of heavy rain, the Chilli plant defoliates and starts rotting. However, in case of low moisture conditions during the fruiting period, the bud does not increase properly. Hence, the flower and fruit can drop off. In other words, high temperature and relatively low humidity level would lead to deflowering and fruits if developed would be small.
Soil requirements for Green chilli farming in polyhouse:
Green chillies need moisture for growth. It has been found that black soil which retains moisture is ideal in case they are grown as rain-fed crops. Under irrigated conditions, the chilli crop needs well-drained sandy loam with rich organic content. They can be grown in deltaic soil under irrigated conditions. In hilly areas, the soil is mixed with gravel and coarse sand before undertaking Green chilli cultivation.
Green chilli is grown in many types of soils-sandy to heavy clay. A well-drained, fairly light fertile loam with a fair moisture holding capacity is ideal for Chilli farming. The light soils make better quality fruits than heavy soils.
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Sowing time and a season for Chilli farming in polyhouse:
In polyhouse, the ideal time for farming chillies is from October end to mid of November. Cover the polyhouse area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using nylon net. Seedlings are ready for transplantation in 30 to 40 days.
In polyhouse, Green chillies can be cultivated both as Kharif and Rabi crop. Also, they are planted at other times. Sowing months are May to June for Kharif crop and September to October for Rabi crops. If they are planted as summer crops then January and February months are chosen.
Water for Green chilli cultivation in polyhouse:
Green chillies are crops that cannot withstand a lot of water. Heavy rainfall and stagnated water would effect in rotting of the plants. In the case of irrigated crops, watering must be only when it is necessary. A frequent watering would effect in the shedding of flowers and a spurt of vegetative growth. The amount of water to be irrigated, the number of irrigations and its frequency highly depends on the climatic changes and the soil type. If the leaves start drooping during day time it is the indication of water requirement. Also, if the flowers seem weak or exhibit not enough vigor, irrigating the crop would help.
Propagation of green chillies in polyhouse:
In regions with excess rains and cold climatic conditions, it is difficult to grow a nursery of crops in the open environment but in polyhouses this can be done without any problem. If the nursery of these crops is grown in poly-houses in December and January it can simply be transplanted in plains as soon as the winter is over. Similarly, rainy season nursery of chillies can be grown in August or September in the poly-houses.
In case of construction of polyhouse plastic film, nylon, acrylic, vinyl, polycarbonate and polyethylene film materials can be used for the roof purpose. The framework of polyhouse must be made of G.I. pipe.
Green chillies are propagated from seeds. At the time of Green chilli cultivation, disease- free, good quality seeds must be chosen. Various high yielding, disease-resistant seed varieties have been developed by research institutes and different organizations.
You may also consider to read the Onion Farming in Polyhouse.
Chilli seed treatment:
Seed treatment is one of the initial steps on sowing. The seeds of Green chillies should never be pre-treated with chemicals. Instead, they must be treated with herbal fungicides. Approximately, 80 grams of seeds will be needed for sowing in one acre of land. Chilli seeds are treated with Pseudomonas fluorescens first and then mixed with Azospirillum. And then it is shade dried for half-an-hour.
Green chilli seeds are generally grown in nurseries and then the seedlings are transplanted. After sowing, the seeds should be properly covered with coco peat and watered daily till it starts germinating. 3% Panchagavya spray is done after 15 days or a micronutrient spray is done after 18 to 19 days. Then the seedlings are transplanted once they are 35 days old.
Seeds must not be treated with any chemical fungicides or pesticides. Treatment of seed with cow pat pit, beejamrut, amrut pani, panchagavya or trichoderma ensure good yield and a healthy crop and will protect the chilli crop from disease.
The seed rate of green chilli:
In polyhouse, the seed rate of Green chilli is 2.5-3.0 kg per acre.
Transplanting of chilli:
The Green chilli seedlings are dipped in 0.5% Pseudomonas fluorescens solution for half an hour and then transplanted in the main field. The intercrop distance is maintained at 45 cm during plantation time.
Green chilli plant care:
Green chilli plants should never be overwatered as the leaves could turn yellow indicating suffocation from soggy soil and they may shrivel up and die if left unchecked. They must be kept in polyhouses and general compost should be used for good drainage.
Pest management of chilli in Polyhouse:
Green chillies suffer from a variety of pests and diseases that may include greenfly, potato blight, thrips, blossom end rot, and botrytis. They may affect the lush growth of the plants and lead to the decrement in the health of the chilli plant.
Some of the major pests of Green chilli farming are thrips, nematodes, pod borers, grubs, aphids, mites, etc. Hence you want to ensure that only well-rotted manure is used. And, intercropping with onions would help avoid pest attack. Use neem Seed Kernel Extract for controlling thrips and mites. Also, installing pheromone traps help control fruit borers.
The process of green chilli harvesting:
Green chilli is ready for harvesting in about 90 days after transplanting. First harvesting stage is done at the green stage to stimulate a further flush of flowering and fruit set. Harvest Green chilli when they are a glossy and green color. Cut the Green chillies from the plant with scissors or a sharp knife.
That’s all folks about green chilli farming in polyhouse, keep growing peppers for profits.
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