Tomatoes are herbaceous, sprawling plants with woody stems growing between 1-3 m tall. Tomatoes are native to Peru and Mexico and are the second most important crop after potatoes. However, there is no definitive record of when or how it arrived in India, and the Portuguese may have introduced it. In India, there are about 1000 varieties of tomatoes. Throughout the year, tomatoes are in season in India. There is, however, a peak tomato season in India at the beginning and end of the year.
Tomato fruits typically weigh 70 to 150 grams and measure 50 to 70mm in diameter. Tomatoes are one of the most popular crops due to their high nutritional value. In addition, it has a long history of use in Indian cuisine, making it one of the most adaptable fruits. The Tomato is used in various dishes, such as salads, ketchup, purees, sauces, and other processed foods. Lycopene is abundant in tomatoes, a powerful antioxidant that prevents cancer. A second antioxidant in the fruit is carotene, which prevents cancer and gives it its distinctive red color.
State wise tomato farming seasons in India
Major Tomato varieties farming in Indian states
Tomatoes come in more than 15000 varieties around the world. India cultivates more than 1000 varieties of tomatoes. However, there are only a few commercially available varieties, and others are consumed locally. As a result, seed companies have further bred tomatoes and developed new varieties with specific characteristics.
IIHR Bangalore developed the Arka Abhijith tomato variety to be a high-yielding F1 hybrid. The plants are semi-determinate and have dark green foliage. Fruits are round and medium-sized (65 to 70 grams) with a green shoulder. It is easy to store thick fleshed fruits (17 days) and transport them for a long time. The product can be used for tabletop purposes. The plant is resistant to bacterial wilt. It matures in 140 days during the Kharif and Rabi season. A typical acre yields 26 tons.
It is a semi-determinate plant with broad leaves and excellent foliage coverage. Long-distance transport is possible with it. The color is glossy and deep red, and the crop is ready 60-65 days after planting. In Kharif and Rabi seasons, this tomato variety is cultivated. The fruits are firm, have good keeping qualities, and are suitable for processing. There is a tolerance for TYLCV in it. Fruits are very firm with good keeping quality and medium in size (80 to 100 grams). Good heat set high yield potential.
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The Namdhari tomato variety is an Indian hybrid variety that matures early. About 80 to 90 grams of fruit with a glossy red color weighs about 80 grams. It is a versatile hybrid that matures early and produces outstanding yields. The characteristics of this hybrid have made it very popular in several regions. It is resistant to the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl virus. Smooth fruits with a green shoulder are produced on plants with excellent foliar cover. There is an acidic taste to the flat-round fruits. The earliness and versatility of this hybrid have gained popularity. In almost all Indian states, this crop is sown from August to October.
Vaishali is a determinate hybrid tomato variety producing medium-sized (100 grams) high-quality fruits. This cultivar is adapted to thrive in hot, humid conditions. It is resistant to Fusarium and Verticillium, making it ideal for processing, particularly in the juice industry. There is a potential yield of 38 tons per acre for this variety.
In addition to producing medium-sized (100 grams), firm, round, smooth, and high-quality fruits, Rupali is a determinate, compact-growing, early tomato hybrid with good foliage cover. This variety is suitable for processing. There is a deep red color to the fruits. Fusarium and Verticillium wilt resistance are present in this variety. The product is suitable for processing.
IIHR Bangalore developed Arka Shreshta, a high-yielding hybrid tomato variety. The fruit weighs approximately 70 to 75 grams, and the plant is semi-determinate with light green foliage. The fruits have a long shelf life (17 days) and are easy to transport. In addition to being suitable for table use, it can also be used for processing. Kharif and rabi season is when the crop is cultivated, and rabi season is when it matures. Per acre, the average yield is 30 tons.
This hybrid tomato variety was developed in India by the IIHR, Bangalore. This is an indeterminate plant with fruits weighing about 140 grams. It is ideally suited for tabletop use. During the Kharif/Rabi season, the crop matures after 160 days. There is an average yield of 30 tons per acre.
Arka Vishal is a hybrid tomato variety released by IIHR. It is an indeterminate plant. Approximately 140 grams of fruit weigh the huge fruit. Tomatoes of this variety are only suitable for table use. Kharif and Rabi season is the best time to plant this variety. It matures after 160 days. There is an average yield of 30 tons per acre.
IIHR Bangalore developed this hybrid tomato variety in India. It is oblate, medium-large (80 to 90 grams) with light green edges, turning a deep crimson color when ripe. Adaptable to rainfed and irrigated environments, it was developed for a new market. Tomatoes of this variety are best suited for table use. It is bred for the fresh market. It produces 14 tons per acre in 140 days under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
Pusa Early Dwarf
It is a hybrid type of Tomato developed by IARI New Delhi in India. The cultivar ripens early because it is determined. It is an early ripening selection from the cross between ‘Improved Meeruti’ and ‘Red Cloud’ – a dwarf type with medium-sized fruits of uniform color. Round, medium-sized, and yellow at the stem end, the tomatoes have a flattish shape. It takes 75 to 80 days from transplantation for the tomatoes to be ready for harvest. A typical acre yields 15 tons. Tomatoes of this variety are suitable for both table use and processing.
It is a cultivar that matures quickly. The height of the plant is 80 to 85cms, and it is indeterminate. A mild acidic pulp is present in the pulp of the fruits, which are flat to spherical in shape and medium in size. The variety is suitable for both processing and table use. There is an average yield of 13 tons per acre. This variety is suitable for sowing in both autumn-winter and spring-summer seasons.
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These plants have moderate foliage coverage and are dwarf and bushy. The fruits are smooth and elliptical, and they are borne on bushes. Unripe fruits are firm, with thick flesh (0.6m) and two well-filled locules, which makes long-distance transport easier. Due to its high Brix content and keeping quality, this fruit is suitable for canning and processing.
They are brightly colored, round, firm, and smooth. The Rashmi hybrid variety is a determinate and widely adapted one. Fruits weigh about 90 grams, and the first harvest occurs about 70 days after planting. Tomatoes of this variety are suitable for processing. The yield potential of this variety is 16 tons per acre.
Major tomato-growing states
Most dry states produce tomatoes during the winter or just before summer. There is usually no tomato production in April and May, which causes the price to the peak. Tomato production is high in all dry areas like Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Frozen conditions are common in some states, such as Kerala and Himachal Pradesh, which lead to poor agricultural production. Andhrapradesh and Madhyapradesh have consistently been the highest producers of Tomatoes in the country since early 2000.
Tomato farming in Andhrapradesh
Tomatoes are one of the major crops produced in Andhra Pradesh. Most of the volume comes from Kurnool, Chittoor, Rangareddy, and Prakasam districts. The tomato crop area will also be increased in three districts of North Andhra Pradesh – Vizag, Vizianagaram, and Srikakulam. Tomato yield was good if cultivated between March and the first week of August in the western region of the Chittoor district.
Tomato farming in Maharashtra
In Maharashtra, tomatoes are the main horticultural crop. In Maharashtra, tomatoes are grown since they are tropical crops. Excessive temperature increases stunt tomato plants. A fluctuating temperature adversely affects fruiting. A temperature range of 13 to 38 degrees Celsius is ideal for plant growth. The flowers and fruits look good. Keeping the night temperature between 18 and 20 Celsius is ideal for tomato fruit. They harvest it thrice. Maharashtra’s most productive districts are Nashik, Pune, Satara, Ahmednagar, Nagpur, and Sangli.
Tomato farming in Karnataka
The Kolar district of Karnataka is known for its tomato cultivation. The state has about 9000 acres of fruit, contributing to our meals’ delicious flavor. Each year, 4 lakh tons of tomatoes are produced here. The business is profitable in Karnataka because it produces a lot of tomatoes. Besides being grown domestically, tomato varieties are also exported abroad. Karnataka’s Tomato growing season lasts from May to August.
Tomato farming in Tamilnadu
The production of tomatoes in Tamil Nadu accounts for 7% of the total in India. Several districts in Tamil Nadu produce tomatoes, including Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Salem, Tiruppur, Theni, and Dindugal. It is possible to grow tomatoes throughout Tamil Nadu in all seasons, but Aadi pattam is the best time to grow tomatoes. In addition, Tomato is widely cultivated across Udumalaipet, Gudimangalam, and Palladam.
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Tomato farming in Gujarat
In Gujarat, tomatoes are a major vegetable crop grown during the monsoon, winter, and summer seasons. Therefore, hot and humid weather is conducive to tomato ripening. Among Gujarat’s major tomato-growing districts are Anand, Kheda, Gandhinagar, Dang, Dahod, Narmada, Panchamahal, Banaskatha, Vadodara, Valsad, Sabarkatha, and Bhavnagar.
Tomato farming in Punjab
The northern states cultivate tomatoes in late November and transplant them in the second fortnight of January. Autumn crops are sown in July – August and transplanted in August – September. Sowing in hilly areas occurs between March and April, and transplanting occurs between April and May. In Punjab state, tomato-growing districts include Amritsar, Ropar, Jalandhar, and Hoshiarpur.
Tomato farming in Haryana
With 3.11% of the total tomato production in India, Haryana ranks 11th in the production of tomatoes. The state produces around 8-12 tons of tomatoes per acre with an average area of 72000 acres. Karnal ranks 4th in Haryana in terms of tomato production. A total of 43587 tons are produced each year. Spring tomato planting is done in late November and transplanted in the second fortnight of January. Autumn crops are sown in July – August and transplanted in August – September.
Tomato farming in Madhya Pradesh
A total of 72300 acres of tomatoes are grown in Madhya Pradesh. Chhindwara Shivpuri, Jhabua, and Shajapur Raisen are the three most important tomato-growing districts. The highest tomato production in Shivpuri district is compared to Madhya Pradesh. Before agricultural commodities reach the market, they must undergo a series of operations, including harvesting, threshing, winnowing, bagging, transportation, storage, processing, and exchange. There are considerable losses in crop output at all these stages.
Tomato farming in Jharkhand
Locally called Vilayti or Biloti, Tomatoes have become one of the most popular vegetables among farmers in Jharkhand. There are pockets of the state where tomato cultivation is the primary crop, and this rapidly growing sub-sector has begun to generate returns for farmers, who now rely solely on it for cash income. Tomatoes are grown in Jharkhand in the vegetable belts of Ranchi, Lohardaga, Hazaribagh, and Chaibasa. This year’s tomato yield is around 13.5 lakh metric tonnes, up from 11 lakh metric tonnes last year.
Tomato farming in Bihar
Tomatoes have become an important source of income for farmers in Bihar. Tomatoes are grown on 46,000 ha, with a total production of 7.36 lakh tonnes, at a productivity of 16 tonnes per hectare. However, using traditional varieties results in low productivity. The same could be doubled by adopting hybrids (ARTH 4, NA 501, Arka Vardan, JKTH 3055) and cultivars (BRH 2) resistant to bacterial wilt and TyLCV and implementing advanced nursery production methods.
|Major tomato growing areas
|Thiruvannamalai, Salem, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Erode, Trichy, Madurai, Dindigul
|Rangareddy, Mehabubnagar, Prakasam, Vishakapattanam, Chittor
|Kolar, Bangalore, Bellary, Dharwad, Belgaum
|Bolangir, Kendrapara, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar
|Satna, Sagar, Jabalpur
|Surat, Valsad, Baroda, Ahmednagar, Gandhinagar, Kedah, Jamnagar
|Shimla, Kullu, Solan
|Amritsar, Ropar, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur
|Rohtak, Sonepat, Jhajjar, Faridabad, Karnal
|Jaipur, Dholpur, Alwar, Tonk, Bharatpur
|Vaishali, Sitamarhi, Bhagalpur, Patna, Aurangabad, Nalanda, Bhojpur, W&E Champaran
|Ranchi, Lohardaga, Hazaribagh, Godda
|Nashik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Nagpur
|Raipur, Durg, Bastar, Bilaspur, Raigarh, Surguja
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Tomato seasons in India
A warm environment is necessary for tomatoes to thrive. It is common for them to be planted in March and April and harvested in late summer in India. Due to the increasing demand for tomatoes in the market, the tomato season in India almost exists throughout the year. It takes 70 days for the plants to begin to produce after transplantation. There is a substantial difference in yield per hectare based on crop type and season. On average, the yield is between 10 and 12 tons per acre. There is a possibility of producing 16-18 tons of tomatoes per acre with hybrid varieties.
January-February and November-December are the peak tomato seasons in India. There are some states in India where the tomato season lasts throughout the year, such as Maharashtra and Gujarat. Tomatoes are in peak season in the northern states from January to February, and the rest of the year is lean. It is produced from approximately mean sea level to an altitude of 1500 m in tropical and subtropical climates with an annual rainfall of 60 to 150 cm. Excessive rains hinder its development. In hot weather, it is planted as an irrigation crop. Sowing of the winter crop takes place between August and September. The tomato winter harvest is good for organic farming.
|Southern and Western States
|A – June – July
|A – August – September
|B – October – November
|B – December – February
|C – January – February
|C – March – June
|Northern and Eastern states
|A – October – November
|A – January – March
|B – January – February
|B – March – June
|A – May – June
|A – July – September
|B – October – November
|B – December – March
A tomato plantation is one of the most popular vegetable crops in India because it is a crop that lasts for only a short period. It can be grown outside and indoors, so it can be grown anywhere. In addition to tomato crops, you can also grow cereals, grains, pulses, and oilseed crops in the tomato crop cultivation area. Different types of tomato plants can be cultivated regarding economic value and productivity.
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