A step by step guide for Tamarind farming, and cultivation
Today, we learn the tamarind farming, planting method of tamarind, tamarind plant care, the yield of tamarind and harvesting procedure of tamarind fruit.
Introduction of Tamarind:
Tamarind is one of the ingredients that is being used in Indian curries, chutneys, sauces, and soups for sweet and sour taste. Tamarind is sweetish and acidic in nature and its pulp has laxative properties. Tender leaves, flowers and seeds are used as vegetables in India. Tamarind kernel powder is also used in sizing material in leather and textile industry. Tamarind seeds yield fatty oil which is being used in paints and varnishes. Tamarind wood also used for multi-purpose like in tool handles, agricultural tools. In India, Tamarind is grown in most of the states, but highly producing states are Bihar, Odhisa, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh.
Health Benefits of Tamarind:
Following are some of the health benefits of Tamarind.
- Tamarind supports digestive health.
- Tamarind is good for heart health
- Tamarind is a good source of iron, hence good blood circulation.
- Tamarind may aid in nerve function
- Tamarind aids in weight loss
- Tamarind also helps in managing diabetes
Local names for Tamarind in India:
Imli (Hindi, Punjabi), Tetul (Bengali), Amli (Gujarati), Hunise Hannu (Kannada), Tamber (Kashmiri), Puli (Malayalam, Tamil), Chintha Pandu (Telugu), Chinch (Marathi), and Tentuli (Oriya).
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The main Tamarind Production States of India:
Odhisa, Bihar, Maharashtra, TamilNadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Himalayan tract.
Varieties of Tamarind in India:
There are only a few varieties available in India.
- PKM1: This is an early variety which yields about 270 to 300 kg pods/tree with a pulp content of 40%. If the plants are spaced at 10 meters by 10 meters, they produce a yield of 25 tonnes of pods /ha.
- Urigam: This is a local variety having a sweet taste and long pods.
Climate Required for growing Tamarind trees:
This can survive in any kind of climatic conditions from 0 °C to 46 °C. It grows well in semi-arid tropical regions with an average annual rainfall of 5 centimeters to 15 centimeters. This tree also can be grown in heavy rainfall areas provided with good internal soil drainage. Generally, the optimum elevation of tamarind is 1000 meter above the mean sea level.
Soil Requirement for Tamarind plantation:
Tamarind trees thrive best in deep loamy and alluvial soils. The best part of it is, this can also be grown in poor soils. Tamarind tolerates the soil pH of 4.5 to 9.0.
Propagation of Tamarind plants:
Tamarind is propagated through seeds, grafts, and buddings.
Sowing, Spacing, and Planting of Tamarind plants:
Generally, the Tamarind seeds are sown in lines at 25 cm apart on the nursery beds. Seeds usually take a week to germinate and 3 to 4 months old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For true type plants, grafting and budding are used and they can be raised in polythene bags. Softwood grafting is very successful using about 1-year-old rootstocks. The best planting time for tamarind plantation is from June to Nov. Pits size of 1-meter x 1-meter x meter should be dug at a distance of 10-meter x 10 meters. Farmyard manure of 15 to 20 kg per pit should be applied by incorporating in the topsoil. Frequent irrigation is required to establish the plants after seedlings are transplanted to the field.
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Manures and Fertilizers requirement for Tamarind plants:
Generally, It requires a good amount of well rotten farmyard manure (FMY) (cow dung or any organic matter). This can be applied while preparing the soil or land.
Irrigation requirement of Tamarind orchard:
Irrigation should be carried out as soon as the seedlings are transplanted in the main field. Depending on the soil moisture-holding capacity, watering should be supplied. It does not require any water in the rainy season. In the case of water stagnation, make sure to drain out the water from the soil especially in the beginning of the planting stage.
Weed Control in Tamarind crop:
The field should be made weed-free in initial stages and this can be achieved by plowing the land a couple of time until it attains the fine tilth stage. Mulching also can prevent the growth of weeds and prevents water loss.
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When and How to Harvest Tamarind fruits:
The plants grown from seedlings can start yielding from the 8th year whereas the plants from grafts and buddlings can start yielding form 4th year. Hand-picking or beating with a stick can be practiced as part of the harvesting tamarind fruit.
The yield of Tamarind fruits:
An average yield of 30 tonnes of pods/ha can be obtained with good farm management practices.
That’s all folks about the wonderful tamarind farming and cultivation practices. Keep farming.!
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