Introduction: Hello farmers, interested to grow Black pepper and would like know Black pepper cultivation income from 1 acre plantation? well, we help you with that. Black pepper belongs to the family Piperaceae and is well known as the (King of Spices). The scientific name is Piper nigrum L. It is a perennial vine that grows to a height of 10 m or more by climbing linearly. India accounts for 54% of total pepper production in the world. In India, pepper is grown in Karnataka, Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Konkan.
A guide to Black pepper cultivation income, yield, & profit
It has good demand in the international as well as the local markets and has good economic importance due to the continuous export to foreign countries. Hence it is known as black gold. Kerala itself produces 90% of Black pepper from the total production in India. The fruit is a single-seeded berry and it takes 6 months to mature after flowering. The leaves are broad and are arranged alternately and give a busy appearance as it covers the whole vines.
Improved commercial varieties in India
Approximately there are 75 varieties of pepper and are being cultivated in India. Karimunda is the most popular one and is grown in Kerela. The others include Aimpiriyan, Balancotta, Kottanadan, Kalluvally, Udddagare, Malligesara and Narayakkodi. The improved varieties include-
- Panniyur-1: It yields on an average of 500 Kg per acre, more adaptable to open conditions sensitive to excess shade
- Panniyur-2: It yields on an average of 1100 Kg per acre where it is shade tolerant but medium-sized berries.
- Panniyur-3: It yields on an average of 850 Kg per acre, prefers open condition yields bold berries.
- Paniyur-4: It yields on an average of 550 Kg per acre, but is stable in its yield and can perform well under any adverse conditions.
- Paniyur-5: It gives the highest yield of 1250 Kg per acre and is also suitable for intercropping in Arecaunt gardens.
- Panchami: It is the topmost variety which gives the highest yield among all the varieties of pepper that yields nearly 3300 Kg green pepper per acre.
- Sreekara: It yields around 950 Kg per acre and is tolerant to drought conditions.
- Subhakara: It yields around 1070 Kg per acre and has a dry recovery of 35%.
- Pournami: It yields around 2900 Kg per acre of green pepper and is tolerant root-knot nematode.
Suitable climatic conditions
Black pepper grows well in tropical hot and humid climates with an annual rainfall if 200 cm. The ideal temperature for the successful growth and yield of pepper ranges from 10°C-40°C based on the variety chosen by the farmer. Before the flowering stage, dry weather should be maintained (dry spell) at least for 40 days to allow fruit setting.
The best suited soils for growing Black pepper
It grows well in a wide variety of soils which include sandy loams, clay loams, red loams, etc. Well-drained soils and virgin soils rich in humus are ideal for black pepper cultivation. pH of the soil should be 5-6.5 which gibes better yield.
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Propagation and planting methods of Black pepper
Black pepper is commonly propagated through vegetative propagation i.e., stem cuttings. It can also be propagated through seeds but it takes longer duration for yield, hence only stem cutting method is followed to get quick yields at a higher rate. Due to the climbing nature, black pepper needs support to climb as it grows up to 10m height. A distance of 3-5m should be maintained between the crops as it shows bushy nature. Pits of size 0.5mx0.5mx0.5m are dug at a distance of 30cm away from the support. 2 to 3 stem cuttings are planted in the soil pits. Care should be taken that at least one node of stem cutting should go underground and the remaining should be 40cm above the soil. Fill the pits with a mixture of soil and well decompose cow dung. Cover these plants with shade which gives beneficial results. May-September is the ideal time for planting the plantlets.
Manures and Fertilizers
- FYM 10 Kg should be applied equally to each plant in May.
- N:P:K ratio should be 0.5:1:0.5 Kg per acre, and should be applied in August.
- Slaked lime 500gm per plant should be applied in alternate years in May.
Note: These manures and fertilizers should be applied at a depth of 12 to 15cm at a distance of 30cm from the base.
Water requirements of Black pepper plants
Irrigation should be provided from November to March and then it must be withheld, to allow fruit setting. Irrigation should be given once in two weeks during winter and once in 2 days in summer, during the rainy season it is better to stop irrigation. Mulching is done during summer to hold the moisture content in the soil for better results.
Pruning of Black pepper vines
Removing the terminal shoot growth and handing shoots is the most important step in Black pepper cultivation. This excessive growth may result in a decrease in the yield of the pepper.
Pests and diseases
Flea-beetle and scale insects are controlled by spraying Dimecron 85EC 10 ml in 1 L of water at an interval of 10-12 days. Diseases such as slow wilt and quick wilt are controlled by drenching the soil with 10 L of Ceresan in 1 L of water and spraying Blue Copper 30 ml in 20 L of water at an interval of 10-12 days respectively.
How and when to harvest Black pepper spice
Black pepper will be ready for harvesting in about 6 months after planting the plantlets in the main field. This can be done in November and continues until March. Black pepper harvesting is a bit labor intensive as it should be carried out by hand-picking method.
The yield of Black pepper per acre
This mainly depends on the type of variety chosen by the farmer. On average it yields 500 Kg per acre in the first year and later the gets increased and stabilized till 8th year and yields about 1000 to 1500kg per acre.
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Costs involved in Black pepper cultivation per 1 acre
Land preparation = Rs. 1,000
Plantlets cost= Rs. 5,000
Manures and fertilizers = Rs. 2,000
Plant protection= Rs. 1,000
Irrigation = Rs. 1,000
Labour Charges = Rs. 10,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs. 1,000
Packaging materials = Rs.1,500
10% of total cost = Rs. 2,250
Total cost = Rs. 24,750
Black pepper cultivation income returns from 1 acre plantation
Farm gate price of 1 Kg of Black pepper = Rs. 80 per Kg, which is purely based on the variety of Black pepper crops which the farmer has chosen. The overall yield for 8 years per acre is 3000 Kg depending upon the variety chosen by the farmer. The farm gate price of 5,000 Kg of Black pepper is 3000×80=Rs. 2,40,000 for the 8 years and the price may vary depending upon the demand in the markets and also based on the variety chosen.
As the crop yields for 8 years, the costs for manures, fertilizers, etc. should be calculated for the total 8 years. The costs for a total of 8 years = Rs. 75,000.
Profit = Income – costs involved = Rs.2,40,000 – Rs.75,000 = Rs. 1,65,000. Hence the profit is Rs. 1,65,000 per 1 acre in 8 years.
Note: The cultivation income of Black pepper and profit may vary based on the yield and variety chosen which are also resistant to a few diseases and pests that minimize the plant protection costs. The yield also increases in a few varieties.
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