Introduction : Hello friends, how about growing cardamom (Elachi) for profits? well, here is the complete guide to Cardamom cultivation income, yield and project report. Cardamom (Elettarai cardamomum) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. This is popularly known as the queen of the spices and is cultivated more in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Cardamom is the flavoring agent that is used in culinary preparations, confectionaries, beverages and liquors, and also in medicines. The oil from the seeds and the pods are used in perfumes and also as a stimulant. India is second largest producer of Cardamom in the world. India is the leading producer of Cardamom oil, Oleoresins to European countries.
A Guide to Cardamom Cultivation Income, Cost and Profit
It grows well in the areas with a temperature of 10-35°C and annual rainfall ranges from 1500-4000mm. Summer showers during February to April are essential for panicle initiation.
Soils rich in clay loams, rich black soils, soil with high humus are ideal for Cardamom growth. It also grows well in laterite soil. Sandy soils are not suitable for Cardamom growth.
These include Malabar, Mysore, Vazhukka. The high yielding varieties include ICRI-1, ICRI-2, PV-1, and PV-2 along with Njallam.
Land should be ploughed thoroughly and should be cleared off with unwanted plants. Leveling of land should be done properly and terraces should be made at required places across the slope. Pits should be prepared during summer
months having dimensions of 60x60x35cm to 90x90x45cm. Pits should be filled with topsoil of one-third and the remaining with a mixture of organic manure and topsoil in a ratio of 1:3.
Planting of Cardamom
Cardamom can be propagated through seeds and rhizomes and also through suckers. Raised beds are prepared at a depth of 30-40cm and 1m width with a height of 30cm. Seeds are sown after repeated wash to remove mucilaginous coating. This has to be done in the months of November to January. Germination takes 30 days of time. Sometimes it might take 2 months. These raised plantlets are immediately mulched with available leaf litter and are then planted in the pits. Mulching is done to enhance the root proliferation and also to conserve moisture of the topsoil along with maintenance of optimum root temperature.
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Fertilizers and Manures
Manuring is done with N:P:K at a ratio of 3:2:4 per bed. It has to be given in three equal doses at an interval of 45 days. Organic manures improve the characteristics of the soil along with the addition of nutrients, hence, it is recommended to add neem cake + bone meal + vermicompost at a rate of 0.4+0.6+0.7 tons per acre and a manure of 2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 tons per acre is applied during first, second and third year in May-June. After applying the manure they have to be thoroughly covered with the topsoil.
Water Supply for Cardamom Plants
The crop requires regular water supply but during tillering and flowering and during summer water requirement is more. Hence it is recommended that the irrigation supply should be sufficient during January-May. Efficient irrigation methods include Drip and Sprinkler. Care must be taken that water should not be logged, hence a proper drainage system must be maintained.
Weeding and Thrashing
Weeding should be done in the months of May-June and next in August-September and the third in December – January. Spraying of weedicides like paraquat @ 625ml in 500 liters of water in the interspaces between the rows leaving about 100cm from the plant base. Removing old and dried shoots of the plants once in a year gives effective results.
Cardamom is sensitive to moisture stress hence shade helps to regulate the soil moisture as well as temperature. Care should be taken that excess shade is also quite detrimental so it is necessary to provide 50-60% filtered sunlight. During monsoon, shade regulation is not required in order to provide adequate light.
After the monsoon season, spread a thin layer of fertile soil rich in organic matter helps in the new growth of the crop which encourages the production of yield.
Cardamom plant protection
Thrips can be controlled by spraying Monocrotophos@0.025%from March to September. Shoot borer can be controlled by spraying Fenthion 0.075%. Aphids can be controlled by spraying 0.05% dimethoate. Diseases like katte, Capsule rot, Damping or Rhizome rot can be controlled by spraying 1% Bordeaux mixture or 0.2% Copperoxychloride during the months of May and has to be repeated again in August.
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Harvesting of Elachi
Harvesting is done during October to November. It takes around 25-30 days. The ripe capsule is harvested and dried in electrical drier or fuel kiln or in the sun. The capsules are spread uniformly and are frequently stirred to ensure uniform drying. The dried capsules are rubbed with hand or mat or wire mesh or coir mat to remove foreign matter. They are stored in black polythene lined gunny bags to retain their green color. Cardamom has high market value based on its size, color, and freshness.
The yield of Cardamom per acre
Cardamom starts yielding at 2-3 years after planting. The yield stabilizes after the fourth year. During second year it yields at an average of 50 kg per acre, at third year it yields 145 Kg per acre and in the fourth year, it yields 200 kg per acre.
Costs involved in Cardamom cultivation per 1 acre
Land preparation = Rs. 30,000
Planting materials = Rs. 5,000
Manures and fertilizers= Rs. 10,000
Plant protection= Rs. 5,000
Irrigation = Rs. 5,000
Labor Charges = Rs. 50,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs. 5,000
10% of total cost = Rs. 11,000
Total cost = Rs. 1,21,000 for 1 year., the second costs include Manure , Fertilizers and Plant Protection, along with Irrigation and Labour charges which sums up to Rs. 50,000. So the total costincurred for 1st and 2nd year is Rs. 1,71,000.
Cardamom cultivation income returns from 1 acre plantation
The Farmgate price per 1 Kg of Cardamom is Rs. 800 per Kg.
The year I –Nil
Year II- 50 kg per acre- Rs. 40,000
Year III-145 Kg per acre- Rs. 1,16,000
Year IV- 200 Kg per acre-Rs. 1,60,000
Profit and Returns of Cardamom
Profit = Income- Total cost incurred = Rs.3,16,000-Rs. 1,71,000= Rs.1,45,000. Hence the profit is Rs. 1,45,000 per acre for Cardamom cultivation for 4 years of Cardamom cultivation, giving a nearly profit of Rs. 40,000 per year. The prices may alter year to year, region to region and hence the profit might increase or decrease in few situations.
That’s all folks hope you enjoyed reading the Cardamom cultivation income and profits. We wish you good luck with your next farming venture.
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