Introduction: Hi farmers, we are here today with information of Fennel Seeds Cultivation Income per acre along with other details like yield, profits and proejct report of fennel farming. Fennel is a perennial herb belonging to the family Apiaceae. The Botanical name of Fennel is Foeniculumvulgare. Fennel seeds are stout and are used as an aromatic spice. Fennel is a good source of Vitamin C, potassium, and Fibre. It is used as a flavoring agent in many of the dishes, soups, etc. India stands first in the production of Fennel seeds in the world. It also has many medicinal properties that are used for treating constipation, throat pain, headache, diarrhea, proper digestion, etc. Fennel has unique properties that are similar to estrogen, and are used by many of the mothers to increase the supply of breast milk.
A guide to Fennel seeds cultivation income, & project report
Popular and Commercial varieties of Fennel along with their yield
These include –
- The local varieties which yield 4-5 quintals per acre. These are ready to harvest in 190 days after sowing.
- RF 101: This variety yields 6.5- 7 quintals per acre and are ready to harvest within 160 days after sowing.
- Gujarat Fennel 1: It gives an average yield of 6.6-7 quintals per acre and is ready to harvest in 255 days after sowing. It is resistant to drought conditions.
- RF 35: It gives an average yield of 5-5.5 quintals per acre and is ready to harvest in 225 days after sowing. This variety is resistant to leaf spot and sugary disease.
- CO 1: This variety can be cultivated in waterlogging and saline conditions with an average yield of 2.5-3 quintals per acre. It is ready to harvest in 220 days after sowing.
The best climatic conditions for Fennel cultivation
The temperature of 15-25°C is ideal for Fennel cultivation. The rainfall ranges from 50-75 mm. Fennel requires cool and dry conditions for seed setting which results in good yield and quality.
The suitable soil conditions for Fennel farming
It can be grown in a wide range of soils which include black cotton soils, loamy soils having rich organic matter. Sandy loam to loamy soils is ideal for Fennel cultivation. The pH of the soil should be 6.5-8. If the farmer gets the soil tested by the agriculture department if he plans for commercial cultivation to manage the soil micronutrient deficiencies.
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How to prepare land for growing Fennel crop
Land should be prepared by ploughing it 3-4 times to attain fine tilth. FYM of 10-12 tons is added to the field (1 acre). The soil must be prepared by separating the weeds and other unwanted wastes.
The sowing and Propagation of Fennel
Fennel cultivation is done through seeds; seeds can be directly sown in the field. The ideal time for sowing the seeds is mid- September to mid- October. Care should be taken that delay should not be while sowing which reduces the yield. The spacing of 45 cm between two rows and 10 cm between two crops. Seeds should be sown at a depth of 3-4 cm. Generally, 1 acre requires 5-6 Kg of seeds for sowing directly. It takes about 10 days for the seeds to germinate.
Fertilizers and Manures required for Fennel farming
The soil should be supplemented with 5-8 tons per acre of well-decomposed FYM should be used while preparing the land. N: P: K ratio should be 3:1.5:1 and should be applied 3 times in equal parts that are 1st, 60, and 90 days after sowing.
The irrigation requirement
Fennel cultivation requires 2-3 light irrigations until the seeds start germinating. After that, it should be irrigated every 15-21 days of interval. Flowering and seed formation is an important stage for good yield and quality so proper moisture level has to be maintained to increase the yield; water stress and waterlogging condition should be avoided at this stage.
How to control weeds in Fennel crop
Weed control is a critical strep in Fennel cultivation. Weeding and Hoeing have to be performed after 1 month of sowing. Weeds can be controlled by using chemicals and even mechanically. Herbicide weeds can be controlled by using Pendimethalin.
Pests and disease control in Fennel production
Pests like aphids, thrips, beetles, leaf-eating caterpillar, leaf blight, Fusarium wilt, and Powdery mildew can be controlled by using different chemicals at different concentrations. Methyl demeton is used to controlled aphids, thrips, and other insects. Diseases like Powdery mildew, Leaf blights, Fusarium wilt, etc. can be controlled by spraying wet sulphur.
When and How to harvest Fennel crop
Based upon the variety the farmer has chosen Fennel seeds to require a minimum of 6 months to get mature after sowing. Harvesting is done by plucking or collecting the umbels when the seeds are fully developed and mature but green in color. Harvesting takes a minimum of 30-35 days as the plucking of umbels should be done twice or thrice for every 10-12 days interval.
Drying of Fennel seeds
The umbels collected are dried under the sun for 2-3 days and in shade for 10-12 days. The cleaning and grading process is done to separate seeds from the umbels. Jute bags are used to store these dried seeds. Extreme care should be taken while storing the seeds as they are prone to frost conditions. 0.1% solution of Sulphuric acid should be sprayed to prevent the seeds from frost.
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The yield of Fennel seeds per acre
This mainly depends upon the variety of the Fennel selected by the farmer, soil type, weather condition, irrigation, and crop management practices. On average Fennel cultivation in 1-acre yields, 8-10 quintals dried seeds.
Costs involved in Fennel cultivation per 1 acre
Land preparation = Rs. 5,000
Seed cost= Rs. 3,000
Manures = Rs. 5,000
Fertilizers= Rs. 3,000
Plant protection= Rs. 5,000
Irrigation = Rs. 5,000
Labour Charges = Rs. 15,000
Miscellaneous cost = Rs. 5,000
Packaging materials = Rs. 3,000
10% of total cost = Rs. 4,900
Total cost = Rs. 53,900
Fennel seeds cultivation income returns from 1 acre plantation
Farm gate price of 1 Kg of Fennel seeds = Rs. 100 per Kg, which is purely based on the variety of Fennel crops which the farmer has chosen.
For 1 quintal the Farm gate price = 100 x 100 = Rs. 10,000 per quintal. So the income for the average yield of 8 quintals = 8 x 10,000 = Rs. 80,000
Profit = Income – costs involved = Rs.80,000 – Rs.53,900 = Rs. 26,100. Hence the profit is Rs. 26,100 per 1 acre.
Note: The profit may vary based on the yield and variety chosen which are also resistant to a few diseases that minimize the plant protection costs.
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