Pearl Farming Project Report, Cost and Profits

Pearl Farming Project:

The following write-up is all about Pearl Farming Project Report, cost, and profits associated with it.


Pearl farming is one of the best aquaculture businesses in India, as pearls have excellent demand in the market. who can get into the pearl farming business? well anybody who is interested to earn profits by dedicating his time to culture the oysters. pearls have great demand in local as well as export markets. You can carry out pearl culture farming along with other fish farming or any aquaculture businesses. Under ideal aquaculture practices of mussels, one can obtain decent profits with commercial pearl farming projects. In a commercial pearl farming project, the first-year investment will be more as you need a fixed asset set up. You can assume 3/4 to a 1-acre, the cost of the pearl project would be around 4 lakhs rupees approximately. When it comes to profits in commercial pearl farming projects, you can expect 50 to 60% under ideal aquaculture management practices. However, if you put more dedication and hard work into the project even 100% profit possible.

The important and main mussel species used for the production of pearls in India are:

  • Lamellidens marginalis (freshwater).
  • corrianus (freshwater).
  • Parreysia corrugata (freshwater).

How do we get the desired pearl shape in the pearl farming project? well, for this, “Nucleus or Bead”  is inserted (which is made from dead mussels shells) along with some solution in the mussels to get the required/desired pearl shape. you can produce round, half-round, designer pearls with the inserted Nucleus.

Types of Pearls/Pearl Varieties

There are mainly three types of pearls.

  • Natural pearls: in this type, the shape of the pearl depends on the original shape of the foreign body.
  • Artificial pearls: These are artificially made and coated with a synthetic material.
  • Cultured pearls (freshwater): These are cultured pearls in freshwater such as ponds, rivers, can get the desired shape in this type.

Under the above categories, here is a list of pearls.

  • Natural pearls.
  • Freshwater cultured pearls.
  • Keshi pearls
  • Saltwater cultured pearls.
  • Mabe pearls.
  • Japanese cultured pearls.

Chemical Composition of Pearls:

  • 82 to 85% of aragonite calcium carbonate.
  • 10 to 13% of the organic matrix.
  • 2 to 5% of water.

Indian Names of Pearls

  • मोती/Moti – Hindi.
  • முத்து – Tamil.
  • മുത്ത് – Malayalam.
  • ముత్యము – Telugu.
  • ಮುತ್ತು/Muttu – Kannada.
  • મોતી/Mōtī- Gujarati.
  • मोती – Kannada.
  • ਮੋਤੀ – Punjabi.
  • মুক্তা / Mukta – Bengali.
  • Muktaa – Oriya.
  • Moti/मोति – Konkani.
  • Urdu – موتی.

Points to Consider Before Starting A Commercial Pearl Farming Project

  • First and foremost, the pearl farming business is a long-term project, you should dedicate time and hard work along with initial investment to set up the pearl farming project.
  • You must choose a secured safe site/location for setting up a commercial pearl farming project. It should be free from predators, floods other threats.
  • You must have a good source of Oysters to culture in the pond.
  • You must have some skills in grafting techniques in pearl culture as this is essential for commercial pearl farming projects. You can visit nearby pearl farms to learn these tips on freshwater pearl culture.
  • Finally, you should establish a good marketing channel to sell the pearls produced on your farm.
  • You must prepare a Pearl Farming Business Plan which includes all the financial aspects of the farm from buying mussels to marketing pearls.

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Pearl Farming Project Cost and Profits

The following is a model/sample pearl farming project report which includes fixed and variable costs. Please note that the values/figures/numbers mentioned in the project report may change from time to time and region to region and variety to a variety of pearls.

Freshwater Pearl Culture.
Freshwater Pearl Culture.

Assumptions of Commercial Pearl Farming Project:

  • Cultured Area of Pearl Farming Project: 1/2 to 3/4 acre.
  • Cultured Technique in Pearl Farming Project: Pearls through double implantations.
  • Stocking Density in Pearl Farming Project: 9,000  to 10,000 mussels.

The timeframe of Culture: 15 months to 18 months.

  • The cost of mussel holding tanks (A) = Rs. 40,000.
  • The cost of bamboos & ropes (B)  = Rs 45,000.
  • The lease amount of cultured pond (C) = Rs 20,000.
  • The cost of mussel surgical sets (D) = Rs 25,000.
  • The cost of mussels in the pond (E) = Rs. 13,000.
  • The cost of pearl nuclei (F) = Rs. 1,10,000.
  • The cost of workers (skilled) (G) = Rs. 60,000.
  • The cost of pond liming, fertilization, and others (H) = Rs.35,000.
  • The cost of post-harvesting and processing of pearls (I) = Rs. 50,000.

Total cost of project =  A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+I =  Rs. 3,98,000 (three lakhs ninety eight thousand).

Now, let us calculate the income from pearl sales.

Total pearls collected after 20% mortality = 40,000.

  • Sale of ‘A’ grade pearls (10 % of total) = 4000 A grade pearls = 4000 x Rs.160 = Rs. 6,40,000.
  • Sale of ‘B’ grade pearls (20 % of total) = 8,000 ‘B’ grade pearls =  8,000  x Rs. 70  = Rs. 5,60,000.

Total Gross Income from pearls sale: Rs 6,40,000 + Rs 5,60,000 = Rs. 12,00,000 (12 lakhs).

Net profit from a commercial pearl farming project is =  Total cost – Income =  Rs. 12,00,000 –  Rs. 3.98,000 =  Rs 8,02,000.

From the above figures, we can assume that you can become a success in the profitable pearl farming business. Unless you export the pearls, there is no TAX on the profits of the pearl farming business as it comes under the agriculture sector.

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Pearl Farming Business.
Pearl Farming Business.

What should we require to run a pearl farming project?

In a freshwater pearl culture businessthe following are required for rearing and processing pearls. These include fixed and variable items. 

Fixed Items – These are onetime investment items:

  • You should have a House or Shed to perform surgical activities.
  • For stocking Mussel Oysters, you need a good size Pond. You can build a pond or go for rent.
  • For keeping the mussels, you need to have Culture Units with supporting material bamboo sticks and PVC pipes.
  • Another essential item is a Surgical Set for performing surgical tasks. You can get these units from any peal culture training centers.
  • You can a worker room and other items such as tables, and chairs to perform any technical activities.

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Other variable items required in commercial pearl farming project:

  • To stock in your pond, high-quality mussels are required. You can buy these mussels from certified breeders or any department of fisheries. If you have labor, you can collect on your own from freshwater bodies like lakes, and rivers.
  • For the freshwater pearl culture process (grafting), you need a Pearl Nucleus. You can get these from the market or any pearl culture centers.
  • Hire a skilled worker and make him stay near the pond. He is the one who carries the grafting (surgeries) of mussels on the farm. You can make sure he handles well. There are many pearl farming training centers where he can get some kind of course. You must have another non-skilled worker who can take care of the pond activities.
  • For commercial pearl culture, the pond should be fertilized and limed to make the culture favorable conditions. Apart from this, post-harvesting activities such as a collection of pearls, polishing, and bleaching of the pearls should be carried out.

Required Toolkit for commercial peal farming project

  • Nucleus carrier.
  • Graft carrier.
  • Forceps.
  • Cell inserter.
  • graft cutter.
  • Sheel Opener.
  • Mussel holder.
  • Incision knife.
  • Spatula.
  • Operation Scalpel.

Pearl Farming Training Centres in India

Swastik pearls

Pearl farming training and research

Vijay Nagar, Alwar, Rajasthan, India

Phone: 094155 90092. 

Pearl Farming Training In Rajasthan

Pratap Nagar Housing Board,

Sector 1, Near KV 6, Sanganer, Jaipur, India.

Phone: 9672868980.

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  1. Is there any Pearl farming training center, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. I am interested in pearl farming training. Please let me know.

  2. Hi
    First of all very nice information
    Secondly I want to start pearl farming
    Can you provide me with the Consultant name

  3. i want to start pearl cultivation in andhrapradesh. is there any training centre near by me. at least bangalore.

  4. We did this pearl farming thing last year and we have 1500 pearl ready but because of this pandemic the dealer is not ready to take the raw material is there any source we can contact to sell the product we have???

  5. I am from Tamilnadu. I heard about Pearl culture can be done at home level in a small area in stalks of plastic trays. Will it be commercially feasible? Let me know more about this home based Pearl culture.

  6. I have 3 acre land at Badlapur near 60 kms from Mumbai with 23 Cement ponds ready .Is any body willing to join me in pearl farming project on Jt Venture basis .What app me 99201 20216

  7. Hi Sir,
    Good Morning,
    In my village I have own land and water source also available, could you please guide me how to proceed for PEARL farming with fresh water and fish farming in same location for running maintenance we need your guide lines.
    Thanks, and Regards,

  8. I have my own farmland with good freshwater resources at my native place in Maharashtra.
    Please guide me on how to set up a commercial pearl farming project. I am ready to take essential practical training as required.


  9. Okay. Interested in getting more input please. I want to get trained first.Any help in this connection is most welcome.

  10. I Have Own Land 1 1/2 Acre And Water Facility In My Village In Andhra Pradesh Please Guide Me How To Set Up Commercialpearl Forming I am Ready To Take training Please Inform Me

  11. I came to know that now a days Pearl farming is the best commercial farming for great profit. Therefore I want to get training and we’ll information and government assistance.

  12. Hi … In the freshwater mussels only two nuclei can be implanted in the either side of the oyester. How is it possible that in 9,000-10,000 stocking density there is 40,000 pearls given the fact that 20% is reduced from the stocking density due to mortality. Please let me know.


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