A step by step guide for Taiwan guava farming, planting, profit:
Most of the farmers are preferring Taiwan guava farming as it is one of the most profitable fruit crops in India. White or Pink Taiwan guava has great taste along with excellent yield capabilities. You can easily grow Taiwan guava in containers, the backyard of a home garden. Before getting into commercial cultivation of Taiwan guava, one should be aware of the following:
- Taiwan guava plant spacing
- High-density Taiwan guava farming (HDP)
- Taiwan guava plant cultivation practices
- Number of Taiwan guava plant per acre
- Taiwan guava plant care
- Taiwan guava pruning and training
- Taiwan guava planting procedure
- Harvesting techniques of Taiwan guava
- Taiwan guava yield per acre
- Taiwan guava profit per acre
- Taiwan guava plant price in India
Now, let us get into the growing details of this wonderful fruit.
Taiwan is the premier guavas grower in the world not only for the excellent quality but also for able to generate this savory fruit a whole year. Originally blessed with a large variety of indigenous guavas, Taiwan guavas have imported and cultivated foreign guava varieties around from 1915; to pass through a string of advancements and studies in Taiwan guava production has led to the cultivation of excellent and hardy guavas year round.
Taiwan guava varieties come in white, red/pink, and yellow flesh varieties, and in the main production of the greatest variety, largest size, and largest volume of guavas belongs to the white flesh varieties.
Taiwan guava is becoming very popular every year among the guava farmers. The reason for why Taiwan guava becoming popular, that is a regular fruiting character with two harvest season every year one from March to April month and another from July August.
Characteristics of Taiwan guavas:
Now, let us discuss important characteristics of Taiwan guava;
Each kind of Taiwan guavas has its important characteristic; referred to as the full moon, the pear guava is remarkable for its thick, crispy flesh and flavorful aroma; the white guava is recognized for its clear, shiny peel and refreshing taste; the Thai guava is referred for its low sugar levels and crisp texture; the thick, crispy Crystal guava; and the pearl guava, Taiwan breeding variety, for its sweet, aromatic flavor and supple texture. All different varieties of guavas produced in Taiwan are incredibly well received in the marketplace by consumers.
Another main important character of Taiwan guava is sweatiness of fruit. The high ascorbic acid content in the fruits makes this Taiwan guava fruit internally acclaimed and most sought after fruit in the international market fetching a premium price for quality fruits. Each Taiwan fruit weighs around 250 – 300 grams. The foreign buyers choose this size to bigger size. The Taiwan fruit looks light green in color at maturity. The Taiwan guava tree reaches the height of 2.5 – 3.0 meters in average with a canopy size of 2.0 to 2.5 meters diameter.
Soil requirement for Taiwan guava farming:
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Being a hardy in nature, Taiwan guava plants can be grown in a wide range of soils from heavy clay to very light sandy in nature. However, they need well-drained, deep loamy, friable soils for good crop yield. Avoid water logging conditions as it can cause the root rot disease. Soil pH of 4.5 to 7.0 is ideal for Taiwan guava plantation. River basins are very well suited for growing Taiwan guava fruits. It is advised to go for soil test if you are planning for commercial guava cultivation. Any nutrient gaps must be filled based on soil test results.
Land preparation for Taiwan guava plantation:
Land must be deeply plowed, harrowed and leveled before planting. Make sure to carry the soil to fine tilth stage. Remove any weeds from previous crops and land must be prepared in such a way that any excess water should be drained out. If the soil is not fertile, supplementing the land with well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) is suggested for required nutrients. This organic manure must be added in the last plow during land preparation. Dig the size of the pit of 1-meter x 1-meter x 1 meter and fill the pits with surface soil mixed with FMY or 25 kg of garden compost.
Soil sterilization for growing Taiwan guava
Soil sterilization is an important task which raises the soil temperature and kills many soil-borne organisms including plant pathogens and pests. This procedure can be achieved by both physical and chemical means. Generally, physical means include treatments with steam and solar energy whereas chemical means include treatments with herbicides and fumigants. However, this can be achieved by plastic mulch film. Cultivation of Taiwan guava, loosening and breaking up or tilling of the soil. The soil around existing plants is cultivated or by hand using a hoe or by machine using a cultivator to destroy weeds and promote development by increasing soil aeration and water infiltration. Soil being prepared for the planting of a Taiwan guava crop is cultivated by a harrow or plow.
Planting of Taiwan guava:
Generally, the planting season for Taiwan farming is one month before the onset of monsoon in India. Planting can be done throughout the year where accurate irrigation facilities are available.
Digging planting pits for farming of Taiwan guava
Before the planting, the topsoil dug out of every pit is mixed with 10 kgs of farmyard manure, 100 grams urea, 100 grams potassium and 2.0 kgs of superphosphate and pit is filled up to 45 cms depth and Taiwan guava seedling is planted just in the center of pit with graft union exposed from soil level inside the pit. The seedlings must be planted 15 to 20 cms down the general field surface inside the pit.
After the planting, the Biofertilizers, biopesticides and VAM fungal culture that are mixed together with powdered farmyard manure and neem cake are applied @ 250 to 500 grams to each pit and watered.
The spacing of the Taiwan guava plants will be 3.0 meter by 2.0-meter row to row and plant to plant spacing is adopted for high yield of Taiwan guava. At this spacing totally 666 plants are planted in an acre of land.
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Propagation of Taiwan guava
Generally, propagation in Taiwan guava farming is done by seeds, cuttings, grafting, and air layering. Seed propagation takes longer time; hence the most adopted propagation process in guava cultivation is grafting and air layering.
The field must be prepared before the monsoon season starts. Usually, the planting must be done before the onset of rains by adopting square planting system. Commercial growers must adopt a distance of 5 meter – 8 meters. Generally, a spacing of 5-meter x 5 meters or 6-meter x 6 meters is followed. Taiwan guava can also be planted in the hedge-row system at a spacing of 4 ft x 6 ft or 6 ft x 3 ft. For high density and ultra-high density planting, the spacing between rows and plants must be less. Normally, in ultra-high density plantation, a row-to-row distance of 6 ft and plant-to-plant distance of 4ft is followed.
High-Density Planting (HDP) of Taiwan guava
Commercial growers can follow the high-density planting process to achieve higher yields in Guava cultivation. Some of the commercial or hybrid varieties do very well under HDP.
Water requirement for Taiwan guava orchard:
Proper irrigation of any crop ensures good plant growth and yield in the farming of Taiwan guava.
Taiwan guava plants require constant moisture in the soil particularly in the dry season from December to May. However, Taiwan guava crop does not need any water in the rainy season. Normally, water requirement and frequency depends on plants age and stage. The first irrigation must be given immediately after planting in the field for root establishment in the soil. Generally, on average, a Taiwan guava plant requires 15 to 30 liters per day. The best irrigation method used in Taiwan guava cultivation is drip irrigation. Drip irrigation provides an efficient method of using water in regions where water is a major problem. Commercial growers can get subsidies on drip irrigation systems from local horticulture schemes. If the drip system is installed, the irrigation process can be given on an alternate day.
Planting and tending young guava plants:
Planting procedure in young plants will be given below;
- Planting at the interval of 3mx3m in flat land or 4mx4m in sloping land.
- Preparing planting holes with the side of 40x40x40cm or 60x60x60cm 1 to 2 months before planting; apply 5 to 10kg composted manual, 100g urea, 100g potassium and 2kg phosphate in each hole, fill up holes with soil and mix well, then covered the hole with soil up to the ground level.
- After planting trees in holes, trim the leaves to prevent wilting, water well for the excellent recovery of roots.
- Regularly check to cut off all the shoots increasing from the rootstocks.
- Making a fence to protect trees and water to maintain the soil moist every day.
Tending developed trees:
First pruning: cutting off the top of the tree when it gets 60 to 80cm in height for easy harvest and stimulating branch development.
Second pruning: after branches reached 30 to 40cm in height, cutting off their tops to stimulate second branching.
Third pruning: cutting off small and thin branches, branches increasing over leaf canopy and branches infected with insect pests and diseases every year after harvesting fruit.
Intercrops in Taiwan guava crop:
Taiwan guava growers can earn extra income by going for intercropping during the pre-bearing stage. Legumes like green gram, yellow gram and short duration vegetable crops like tomato, chili, okra, French beans could be cultivated as inter-crops. Intercropping enriches the soil fertility by increasing ‘N’ content in it.
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Manures and Fertilizers for Taiwan guava trees:
Balanced manures and fertilizer application is necessary for high yielding of Taiwan guava produce. Farmyard manure of 50 Kg and N: P: K of 1 Kg per tree in 2 split doses during March and October must be applied. To increase the fruit yield, spray Urea 1 % + Zinc sulfate 0.5% twice a year during March and October month. In the case of boron deficiency soils, spray 0.3% borax during flowering and fruit set period.
Training of Taiwan guava plants:
When the plant reaches 75 to 80 cms high, cut back the plant to the height of 50-60 cms from the ground. This will stimulate branching. When the side branch reaches 30 to 40 cms long growth, select 3 to 4 strong branches in such a way that the retained branches fan around the central stem like an umbrella and all other weak branches are removed. The retained branches are cut back to half the length say 20 cms long or green immature part of the branches is cut off retaining matured brown color twigs of each retained primary branches. And further branching is encouraged in each primary branch. The same process is applied here in pruning the secondary branches as done earlier in the primary branches and 2 to 3 secondary branches are allowed in each primary branches and third light pruning is done on each secondary branches to generate tertiary branches. This will shape Taiwan guava tree with an excellent canopy that generates excellent flowers and fruits.
Pruning of Taiwan guava plants:
Training of plants in a young stage must be carried out to build a strong framework and to avoid weak crotches. Fruit bearing trees must be trained as low headed trees to facilitate multiple hand pickings. The open center of delayed can be adopted for training. The scaffold branches in young Taiwan guava plants should be tipped back to encourage secondary branching. The root sucker, water sprouts, and cross branches must be removed.
To check the overcrowding and to control the plant height, the terminal shoots on the periphery must be headed back at about 42 cm level in alternate years. Pruning takes place during harvesting period as the fruit is plucked along with the shoot on which it is borne. Pruning is generally should be carried out after harvesting or in spring. Summer pruning is not recommended as it can damage the plant by sun burning.
Pest and disease of Taiwan guava:
- If aphids leave eating caterpillars or fruit flies appear, spray Sherpa 0.2 to 0.3%, Trebon 0.2%, or using biological bait such as Vizubon.
- To control downy mildew or fruit spots disease by spraying Ridomil 0.2%, Anvil 0.2%.
- Avoid using fresh fertilizer or wasted water to irrigate the guava trees.
Harvesting Taiwan guava:
Taiwan guavas are harvested throughout the year (except during May and June) in one or the other region of the country. There is totally two harvest season every year one from March to April month and another from July August.
Taiwan guava profits and yield
If Taiwan guava is grown in one acre land, so there would be 250 plants per acre. Taiwan guava yield per plant 35 to 40 kgs per plant and around 7,500 kgs per acre. Generally, Taiwan guava fruits can earn an annual income 7 to 10 lakhs per acre and the Cost of Taiwan guava plant approximately Rs 35/Piece.
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Grading and packing of Taiwan guava:
- Generally, it has been seen that the farmers do informal sorting and grading, which is normally undertaken to remove highly damaged fruits and separating unattractive and small fruits.
- The Taiwan guava fruit is usually packed in gunny bags, cloth bags or baskets for the local markets. For the distant market, the Taiwan guava fruit is packed in baskets or even boxes. These packages have not been found capable of protecting the guava fruits against thrust and jerks during handling and transportation, affecting quality.
- Plastics crates have been originating to be efficient but their handling and cost are restricting its use.
Storage of Taiwan guava:
- The shelf life of Taiwan guava fruits at room temperature is only for a few days. The mature fruits of winter season crop can be stored up to 6 to 9 days under ambient condition while those of rainy season could be stored up to 2 to 4 days, depending upon the variety.
- With defined ventilation, the shelf life of Taiwan guava fruits can be extended up to 14 days under ambient condition. The low-temperature storage of guava fruits extends shelf life for another few weeks.
- Under low temperature of storage of guava fruits at 10°C or below, this temperature results in chilling to fruits.
- For low-temperature storage, the fruit must be hard, green and mature but without a color break. Immature and ripe Taiwan guava fruit is not suitable for low-temperature storage.
That’s all folks about the farming of Taiwan guava and the yield, profits of Taiwan guava fruits.
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