Indian Bean Cultivation Guide:
Introduction of Indian Bean: Indian bean is one of the most popular perennial vegetable crop in India. Basically Indian bean is a multi-purpose crop which is being primarily grown for its green pod. However, it is consumed as vegetable, pulse and forage. In India, most of the rural people grow this vegetable at home. The demand is excellent in local markets, so the commercial cultivation of Indian bean is growing day by day. This vegetable is popularly known as ‘Sem’. Indian bean belongs to the family of “Fabaceae” and genus of “LabLab”.
Uses and benefits of Indian Bean: The following are the uses and health benefits of Indian bean.
- Indian bean crop is used as animal fodder/silage or green manure.
- Indian bean crop is excellent for soil nitrogen fix.
- Indian bean green pod is consumed as vegetable and its bean as pulse.
- Indian bean is good for digestive system.
- Indian bean helps in relieving constipation due to good fiber content.
- Indian bean helps in weight loss.
- Indian been seeds (pulses) contain good protein.
Major Production States of Indian Bean:- Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Maharashtra.
Indian Bean Common and Local Names:- Dolichos bean, Hyacinth bean, Bonavist bean, Seim bean, Lablab bean, Egyptian kidney bean, Indian bean, Common bean, Field bean, Pendal bean, Pole bean, Waby bean (English), Sem, Ballar (Hindi), Pavta, Wal (Marathi), Avare, Chapparadavare, Chikkadikai (Kannada), Avari, Mochai (Tamil), Chikkudu (Telugu) Avara, Mochakotta, (Malayalam), Shim (Bengali), Val (Guajarati), Sin bean (Assamese).
Indian bean Varieties:- The following are the high yielding varieties of Indian bean.
- KDB 403.
- KDB 405.
- Kankan Bushan.
- Phule Gauri.
- Pusa Early Prolific.
- Pusa Sem 2.
- Pusa Sem 3.
Climate Requirement for Indian Been Cultivation:- Basically, this crop is a cool season crop and well adapted to tropical and subtropical regions. High temperatures and humidity favors the plant growth. This crop starts fruiting from onset of cold season(winter) after 3 months of sowing and continue to give green pods through winter and spring season.
Soil Requirement for Indian Bean Cultivation:- This crop is grown in wide range of soils. However, loam soils are best suited for its cultivation. This crop also grows well in alkaline and saline soils. This crop tolerates the PH value up to 8.5.
Propagation in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Generally, propagation is done by seeds.
Land Preparation, Seed Rate and Sowing in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Land should be brought to fine tilth stage and weed free by giving couple of deep ploughings. Usually the best time of sowing is onset of monsoon (month of July) and which comes to flowering in November and can be harvested in January.
The seed rate depends on the variety of the bean. However, an average seed rate of 10 to 12 kg is required in climbing type where as in bushy type, 20 to 25 kg will be sufficient for 1 hectare land.
The seeds can be sown in rows or on ridges by drilling or by dibbling method. Flat bed, ridges and furrow layout is used in the seed sowing method. Spacing is dependent on the variety creeping nature and general spacing is 1 meter X 1 meter.
Weed Control and Intercultural operations in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Regular weeding should be carried out in the bean plantation and usually an about 10 weedings are needed. Weeds can be removed between two channels by a tractor and spade. Khurpee can be used to remove the weeds within the channel. Applying weedicides like Basalin 2 ml/liter of water will control the soil weeds. These weedicides can be applied before and after sowing the seeds when there is sufficient moisture in the soil to ensure the effectiveness of the chemical. This crop is more prone to insects and diseases from planting to harvesting stage. These pests and diseases can be controlled by timely sparing insecticides and pesticides whenever needed.
Irrigation in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Generally this is grown as a rainfed crop, however in case of irrigated conditions, watering should be provided @ weekly interval in summer and 2 weeks interval in winters. In other times, depending on the soil moisture, irrigation can be given.
Intercropping in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Farmers can get some extra income with intercropping by utilizing inter -spaces between the plant rows. Intercropping will also help in soil improvement by fixing the nitrogen in the soil. Inter-crops with finger millet, groundnut, corn, bajra or sorghum are advised in Indian bean Cultivation.
Fertilizers in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Being a legume crop, it requires less nitrogen in the soil. Farm yard manure (FMY) of 5 to 8 tonnes, 10 kg of ‘N’ and 20 kg of ‘P’ should be applied in 1 hectare land at the time of sowing the seeds. In case of intercropping, inter-crops require separate fertilizer application.
Harvesting in Indian Bean Cultivation:- The Indian bean crop will be ready for harvesting after 3 months of sowing. Harvesting can be carried manually on need base. Picking of beans is preferred in the morning or late afternoon for better quality.
Yield in Indian Bean Cultivation:- Yield always depends on the variety grown and farm management practices. In Indian bean Cultivation, an average yield of 100 to 120 quintal of green pods per hectare and 5 to 10 tonnes/ha of green matter, which can be used as fodder or green manure can be obtained.
For Cluster beans (Guar) farming : Read here.
For Kidney beans (Rajma) farming: Read here.
For French beans farming : Read here.
For Sheep or Goat Farming Info: Read here.